Open Access Original Research Article

Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect Consumers’ Purchase Intention in Retailing Industry in Hong Kong?

Anthony Tik-Tsuen Wong

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i830358

Hong Kong has been known as a shopping paradise that attracts tourists from all over the world. However, in recent years, the retailing industry in Hong Kong has fallen into dire straits and it will be facing more challenges in the future. Therefore this research aims to study the determinants affecting consumers’ purchase intention in the retailing industry in Hong Kong. There are five variables proposed. The independent variables include value-driven motive of CSR and perceived CSR. The dependent variable is purchase intentions. Corporate reputation and consumer trust are both independent and dependent variables. Quantitative research method was used. Data was collected in Hong Kong with convenience sampling method in collecting responses from all adults. Online questionnaires using a 5-point Likert scale are distributed through social media. The questionnaire encompassing 22 items in measuring the five constructs in this research model, eventually, there are 249 effective responses applied in this research. Partial least squares structural equation model (PLS-SEM) shows that five out of six hypotheses are found to be supported except the hypothesis concerning the relationship between value-driven motive and purchase intention. The research reveals that there is a positive relationship between perceived CSR, corporate reputation, consumer trust with purchase intention. At the same time, perceived CSR is positively related to corporate reputation, and corporate reputation is positively related to consumer trust. The research gives a good theoretical framework to further research especially in CSR. For managerial issues, retail managers are recommended to identify and promote CSR activities that best reflect their particular product or service. This will ultimately benefit Hong Kong's retailing industry as a whole.

Open Access Original Research Article

Queue Management Benchmark for Modelling Patients' Flow in Nigerian Public Hospitals

Akpan, Anietie Peter, John, Efiok Nsikan

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 17-27
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i830359

Although queue management in hospitals is widely researched, little is known about the benchmark for modelling patients flow in terms of the optimal number of servers required for effective service delivery. This study applied the queuing theory to the Nigerian public hospitals by setting a benchmark for modelling patients flow. A mixture of survey and observation was adopted to garner data for 30 days from patients in six public hospitals in Nigeria. Data were subjected to performance analysis via the Temporary Ordered Routine Algorithm. The computed performance values were further compared with their acceptable benchmarks for multi-server queues through the General Purpose System Simulator. We found the queuing system in the select hospitals not in congruence with the system performance benchmark; the mean service rate in each facility was low compared to the mean arrival rate; and the simulated number of doctors for were below the modelled benchmark. Managerial implications of findings were discussed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining the Twin Deficits Phenomenon in Kenya

Patrick Mugendi Mugo, Wafula Masai, Kennedy Osoro

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 28-43
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i830360

Aims: This study examines whether the long-run relationship between fiscal and current deficits follows the tenets of twin-deficits, the Ricardian equivalence, the current account targeting, or the feedback linkages. It further reviews the effects of fiscal and current account deficits on economic growth. These have in recent years been debated both in developed and developing countries.  In contributing to this ongoing debate, the authors applied unit root tests, cointegration analysis, a dynamic vector error correction model and Toda-Yamamoto Granger-causality representation using annual time series data from 1980 to 2016.

Study Design: The study employs quantitative time-series research design by utilizing Stata econometrics software.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Kenya, from 1980 to 2016.

Methodology: The study employs unit root tests, Johansen (1995) co-integration analysis, a dynamic vector error correction model and a multivariate Toda-Yamamoto (1995) Granger-causality representation.

Results: The paper provides evidence of unidirectional causality running from fiscal deficit to current account deficit in support of the twin-deficits phenomenon for Kenya. There is evidence that in the long-run fiscal deficits has significant negative effects while current account deficits had significant positive effects, on economic growth in Kenya. 

Conclusion: Overall, the study concludes that the twin-deficits phenomenon fits for Kenya. The findings imply that the authorities need to pay more attention and promote policies that improve investment efficiency arising from these deficits. Importantly, some of the key policy implications include promotion of policies that upscale fiscal discipline and reduce the size of fiscal deficits for external stability and long-term economic growth, in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Interest Rate on Household Consumption in Tanzania

Daud Mkali Fadhil, Naifin A. Rajab

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 44-62
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i830361

This study seeks to determine the exact impact of interest rate on household consumption in Tanzania and identify the direction of causality between the variables. Although there have been few studies which explore the issue of interest rate and consumption, their method, time scope and geographical location has been different. This study aim to examine the relationship between interest rate on deposit and household expenditure in Tanzania using the annual time series data from the period 1990–2017 and employing Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS) and Granger causality test for testing causal relationship between  the variables. The result revealed that there is a negative relationship between interest rate on deposit and consumption for the Tanzania. Additionally, it is observed from the estimate results that interest rate had an insignificant effect on consumption. Furthermore, the granger causality test results have shown that there is bidirectional causal relationship between interest rate and consumption. Furthermore, the result also shows that income and consumption are positively related and statistical significant at 5%. In addition, the findings supported Keynesian's Absolute Income hypothesis which emphasis consumption being a positive function of disposable income. The study recommends that there is the need for government to take urgent steps to implement policies like poverty reduction strategies, agriculture policy and Five Years Development Plans in order to improve the income base of most of households.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of the Relationship between Store Attributes, Shopping Enjoyment and Place Attachment

S. Jenifar Sharmila

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 63-78
DOI: 10.9734/jemt/2021/v27i830362

Aims: Aim of this examination is firstly investigate the build of store attributes in a grocery store setting in Batticaloa, Manmunai North and afterward to look at retail attributes credits and its relationship to consumer place attachment with respect to the shopping enjoyment.

Study Design: This study applied quantitative method which related to positivism philosophy and applying the deductive approach.

Place and Duration of Study: This current study focus on the grocery shoppers, this study had been undertaken with in five stores of Manmunai North D.S division, Batticaloa district., chosen according to their high traffic and wide variety of product categories sold.

Methodology: primary data were collected from 239 respondents (118 males, 121 females.; 151 married, 88 unmarried). whereby collected data will be analyzed statistically with statistical analysis software.

Results: As per that totally 300 questionnaires were issued, and 239 questionnaires were recollected. Cronbach’s overall variable alpha coefficient values are above 0.70, so it is shown that all items are considered reliable. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that, there was a significant strong positive relationship between overall store attributes and shopping enjoyment in selected retail outlets (r=0.619; P=.00) as well as a moderate positive correlation (r=0.363; P=.00) between shopping enjoyment and place attachment. 49.3% of the variation in shopping enjoyment is explained by product, price, service, location, facility, design and atmosphere simultaneously 13.2% of the variation in place attachment is explained by shopping enjoyment.