Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Efficiency of Farmers on Paddy Cultivated Farms in Raichur District of Karnataka, India

Ravindra Chavan, Suresh S. Patil, G. M. Hiremath, B. S. Reddy, M. G. Patil

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2019/46038

This work is focused on investigating the economic efficiency of farmers on paddy cultivated farms in Raichur district of Karnataka, India. The Raichur district was selected as study area because of highest fertilizer consumption in the Karnataka state. Paddy crops were selected for the study because which has highest net cultivable area and also highest chemical fertilizer consumption in the study area. In the study area, there were very few recent studies focused on usage of inputs for the crops under cultivation, this study help in found that farmers are using efficient inputs for the crops under cultivation, which result into a gap in input use. The results of the study will be great useful to the policy makers to formulate policy related to efficient utilisation inputs to enhance the crop output at the same time reduce the cost of cultivation and maximise the profit.  The study was based on the primary data collected through survey method from paddy cultivated farmers 60 farmers in Raichur district during 2015-16. For paddy cultivation among small farmers results of technical, allocative and economic efficiency indicated that 36.67 per cent, 16.67 per cent and 10 per cent of small farmers had efficiency scores above 0.9 in production of paddy, about 26.67 per cent and 16.67 per cent of the farmers were technically efficient with score ranges between 0.7-0.8 and 0.8-0.9. Similarly in large farmers 33.33 per cent, 26.67 per cent and 10 per cent of technical, allocative and economic efficiency scores above 0.9 in the production of paddy. It is clear that most of the small and large farmers were economically inefficient, however, there is scope to utilise the available resources for paddy cultivation farmers in the study area. Therefore both the categories of farmers need to practice recommended dosage of application in fertilizers and also other inputs as per the package of practice given by State Agriculture Universities (SAU) in order to achieve the 100 per cent efficiency. Hence, there is a need to conduct the awareness programmes on the efficient use of farm resources without affecting the crop yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between National Open Apprenticeship Scheme and Youth Employment: Evidence from Bwari Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria

Wilson Okwori, Millicent Adanne Eze, Innocent U. Duru

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2019/46746

This study investigated the extent to which the National Directorate of Employment has fulfilled its mandate of combating youth unemployment in Bwari Area Council through survey research design. The analysis of data and testing of formulated hypotheses was executed through descriptive statistics and Chi-square statistic. The findings revealed that the National Open Apprenticeship Scheme is an effective strategy for combating youth unemployment in Bwari Area Council. However, the results showed that the Scheme had not significantly reduced the rate of youth unemployment in Bwari Area Council. The study recommended that policy strategies for the promotion of job creation should be deployed to support enterprises established by youth. In addition, the monthly stipends of trainees of National Open Apprenticeship Scheme should be improved upon and paid regularly to arouse their interest for self-employment opportunities. Furthermore, the government should create an enabling environment for small businesses in Bwari Area Council by making power, good roads, water and other social infrastructural facilities available and National Open Apprenticeship Scheme should be linked with Microfinance Banks to provide loans to their graduates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants in Production of Cropping Systems in Kolar District, Karnataka

Raghavendra D. V., Sreenivasa Murthy, D.

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2019/47480

Technical efficiency was examined by collecting data from Kolar district of Karnataka under four distinct groups viz., vegetable-based small (VS), vegetable-based large (VL), cereal-based small (CS) and cereal-based large (CL) cropping systems by adopting multistage purposive cum random sampling technique. Data Envelopment analysis (DEA) was used for estimating the technical efficiency and the results indicated that nearly 38.33 per cent of farms under assumption of constant returns to scale performed with the efficiency level equal to 0.9 or greater, i.e., 46 out of 120 farmers in the entire cropping system. Distribution of farms in three regions of production frontier revealed that majority of farms i.e., 70 per cent of the farms in VS, 60 per cent in VL, 77 per cent in CS and 67 per cent in CL systems were found to be operating in the region of increasing returns or the suboptimal region. The production scale of these farms can increased while decreasing costs, since they were performing below the optimum production scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Public Expenditure and Financial Development on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

Abdulkabir N. Adedeji, Jiddah, M. Ajayi, Maryamu Thomas Tizhe

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2019/46228

The relationship between economic growth, government expenditure and financial development has widely explored but the latter has separately been modelled. Modelling the trio in a single linear model may generate new information. This study examines the effects of disaggregated public expenditure and financial development indicators on economic growth, focusing on Nigeria. Time series data, spanned between 1981 and 2016, were collected and analyzed using ordinary squares technique. We find that specification of the expenditure-growth model with financial development is valid. All the disaggregated financial development and public expenditure indicators have significant effects on economic growth, with positive regression signs except two -financial private sector credit and recurrent expenditure–directionally different. The effect of the former is more dominant, signaling important policy implication considering economic growth of Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do US Counties Benefit from Wilderness Designation? Examining Local Government Revenue and County Expenditures

Ryan M. Yonk, Joshua Smith, Sarah Reale

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2019/46813

We examine the effect of wilderness designation on US counties’ spending patterns as well the effect of designation on counties’ overall and tax revenue. Using data on each of the 3,144 US counties from the US Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics we apply ordinary least squares regression to determine the effect of wilderness designation. After controlling for relevant confounding variables we find that the presence of wilderness lands in a county does not have a statistically significant effect on overall tax revenue and property tax revenue collected by counties. We also find that wilderness designations change the ways counties spend taxes they do collect. Specifically, counties with wilderness designations tend to spend more on fire and protection, health, and less on public welfare programs. There were no statistically significant increases in spending on education, police, or government payroll. If counties are gaining more tax revenue but having to spend more to manage their county, and also having to borrow more than counties without wilderness lands, the land that might be thought to an amenity to the county could actually be a hindrance.