Open Access Original Research Article

Tax Audit by Government, and Optimal Air Pollution Tax Rate

Yu-Kun Wang

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2018/43730

This paper uses two-stage game theory to analyze the relationship between tax evaders and government regarding air pollution emissions. The production function of a firm in a perfectly competitive market was first considered. Then, the backward induction method and the Cramer rule method to determine the optimal subgame perfect equilibrium in the two-stage game and investigate the relationship between firms' tax evasion behaviour and tax variables. This study discovered that the stronger the spillover effect on firms engaging in air pollution control, the higher the tax rate levied by government should be. When firms are in a perfectly competitive market and the financial policy instruments (i.e., air pollution tax and subsidy rate) are known, the conditions for economic stability can be established.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Micro-doses on Maize and Its Effect on Profitability: An Evidence from Sub-humid Farming Systems, Tanzania

P. S. Saidia, F. Graef, C. L. Rweyemamu, J. M. R. Semoka, A. A. Kimaro, L. Mwinuka, K. D. Mutabazi, S. Sieber

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2018/44157

Despite a high productive potential for many best bet agricultural technologies, there is a low rate of adoption from farmers. Recommendations of improved technologies such as fertilizer use based on agronomic data without economic analysis contributes to this low adoption rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profitability of selected fertilizer types and rates in maize production in a sub-humid farming system. A field experiment was conducted to investigate costs and revenue of fertilizer types and rates applied on maize farms using a split-plot layout under randomized complete block design. The phosphate fertilizers trialed were local Minjingu Mazao (MM), di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) and triple super phosphate (TSP), urea was used to supply nitrogen. Fertilizer rates were micro-doses at 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 75% compared to control and recommended rates. Local MM at 75% micro-dosing produced the highest net benefit 3.0 – 3.5 million Tanzanian Shillings per hectare (TZS/ha) followed by 2.7 – 2.9 million TZS/ha from TSP at recommended rates and DAP at a 75% micro-dose rate under subsistence farming. Micro-dosing fertilizer at 25% and 50% produced the highest benefit-cost ratio under both commercial and subsistence farming conditions. Micro-dosing at a rate of 12.5% was more profitable than the control rate and farm profitability increased towards 25% and 50%, thereafter decreasing as application approached the recommended rate. Adoption of micro-dosing fertilizer at 12.5% could be an entry point to fertilizer use and to later be advanced to 25% and 50% micro-dosing rates which are more profitable under smallholder farming systems in sub-humid tropics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparisons on Science and Technology Innovation Efficiency between Large-sized and Medium-sized Industrial Enterprises in China: Based on DEA Method and Equal Part Linear Regression

Qiu-Lin Wu, Wen-Tsao Pan

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2018/44053

This paper constructs an evaluation system for science and technology efficiency of industrial enterprises based on existing research achievements, and implements a comparative analysis on the innovation efficiency of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises by data envelopment analysis (DEA). Further, it discusses the factors influencing the science and technology innovation efficiency of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises by equal part linear regression. The results show that: firstly, the innovation efficiency of large-sized enterprises is equivalent to that of medium-sized ones overall, but both possess their unique advantages in various subdivided industries. Secondly, most of the large-sized and medium-sized industrial enterprises show constant or diminishing returns to scale. Thirdly, in the mining and manufacturing industries, both large and medium-sized enterprises show the highest input redundancy and obvious output insufficiency. Finally, there are different factors influencing the science and technology innovation efficiency of large and medium-sized industrial enterprises.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Non-interest Income on Banks’ Profitability in Nigeria

A. O. Adedeji, O. A. Adedeji

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2018/44287

Nigerian deposit money banks are facing diverse challenges to remain profitable                                through the traditional interest income stream. The study examined the effect of non-interest income on the profitability of deposit money banks' in Nigeria between 2006 and 2015. Five out of the 21 banks in the category were purposively selected based on the numerical strength of their customers, volume of transactions, geographical spread and accessibility to balanced secondary data especially on the internet. Using ex-post facto research design, secondary data were collected from the banks’ published annual financial reports. Percentages and multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis. The result showed that the variations in the linear combination of total non-interest income, liquidity ratio, prime lending rate and inflation for the banks explain 61.5% of the changes in profitability. It revealed that non-interest income is a significant predictor of           profitability since p- value for this coefficient is statistically significant (p<0.001). The study concluded that non-interest income has a positive and significant effect on deposit money banks' profitability but the growth rate has been inconsistent. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that deposit money banks should benchmark their competitors and be ready for continuous improvement of their products and services to generate more non-interest income to boost profitability.

Open Access Review Article

Review on the Role of Agriculture Cooperatives in Optimising Gross National Happiness

Tashi Dendup, Benu Prasad, Indra Lal Acharja, Tashi Dendup, Sonam Zangpo

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2018/43992

Gross National Happiness (GNH) is Bhutan’s development philosophy emphasising the happiness of people instead of seeking economic prosperity alone. Researchers have studied GNH in relation to different fields such as health, education, etc. However, as studies on the impact of a business model like Agriculture Cooperatives (ACs) on GNH are scarce, the authors felt the need to fill this study gap. The study aims to review the roles of ACs in optimising GNH. The “proposed GNH of Business”— a framework developed by Centre for Bhutan Studies and GNH— guided the review. In this study, we presented direct and indirect evidence of ACs contributing to different domains of the GNH, thereby, improving both workers’ happiness and organisational conditions for happiness. The review also indicates that functional or successful ACs have the potential to optimise GNH in the country. However, empirical studies are required to confirm these literature-based findings.