Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Off-farm Sector Involvement on Welfare of Rural Households in Nigeria: A Propensity Score Matching Approach

M. K. Ibrahim, S. O. Adejoh, U. M. Shaibu

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2017/34092

This study investigated the impact of off-farm employment on the welfare of households in rural Nigeria employing household data obtained from the RIGA database. A sample of 14,512 rural households was used for the study. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method was employed to evaluate the impact of participating in both wage and self-employment on the welfare of rural households whose major occupation is farming. Results from analysing socio-economic characteristics showed that majority of the rural households in Nigeria were male headed. These households had very little access to credit especially from formal institutions. Also, most of the households owned land the land they cultivated. The results from the PSM estimations showed that off-farm employment had a positive and robust effect on farm household income. Off-farm participants were observed to have greater consumption expenditure than the non-participating rural households. On average, a rural households involved in off-farm was 8,583 Nigerian naira better-off than a non-participating household. The study therefore recommends relevant policies that will have direct bearing on the rural off-farm sector by enhancing market integration and stimulating the growth of the off-farm sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Feasibility Study to Evaluate the Potential Entry of a New F-MVNO into the Spanish Mobile Market

Joaquin Tomas, J. L. Melús Moreno

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2017/34309

The mobile market until a decade ago had been composed mainly of Mobile Network Operators (MNOs). To promote greater competition in this market the European Commission (EC) has promoted various actions in the regulatory and policy environment in Europe. This has significantly facilitated the appearance of new players in this market, such as Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs), which in the case of the Spanish mobile market grew from 4 MNOs to 38 non-homogeneous operators by early 2017. This paper presents an assessment of the economic feasibility of the entry of a new Full-Mobile Virtual Network Operator (F-MVNO) in the Spanish mobile market. This operator does not own band rights and therefore has to negotiate with a host operator (HO) for use of spectrum and has to provide the suitable and necessary devices that route and switch calls. Moreover, it has to ensure the interoperability of its own services with other operators and has to manage the services and traffic generated by its own subscribers. The examples of evaluation analyzed in this work consider six different scenarios over five years. The evaluation for each scenario calculates the average return per user (ARPU) or the income per subscriber and the fixed and variable costs needed to provide the proposed services. The data used in this evaluation are provided by the National Commission for Markets and Competition, NCMC or “la Comisión Nacional de los Mercados y la Competencia, CNMC” in Spain [1], which is in charge of publishing quarterly the available data about the Spanish mobile market. The results show for each scenario the minimum number of subscribers that a new F-MVNO needs to ensure its economic feasibility (break-even point) and the time necessary to reach it. The methodology used in this work may also serve as a guide to assess the economic feasibility of new F-MVNOs entering in other European countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relationships between Corporate Social Responsibility and Customer Satisfaction in Taiwan Farmer Association

Canon Tong, Anthony Tik-Tsuen Wong, Libby Chien Lu Lin Hsiang

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2017/34279

Service is dictated by its inseparability, variability, intangibility and perishability characteristics, inherent characteristics that make it more difficult for an organization to market and sustain its marketability. Studies have revealed relationships between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and customer satisfaction, there is a gap on the relationships between the dimensions of CSR as antecedents and customer behavior. This study therefore examined the effect of three dimensions in CSR to customer satisfaction of the Farmers’ Association credit departments (FACDs) in Taiwan. This study adopted a positivism paradigm and quantitative cross-sectional approach to empirically examine customers’ views of CSR. Using purposive, judgemental, and convenience sampling techniques, a self-administered questionnaire was personally distributed to 400 members and customers outside FACD offices throughout Taiwan. A total of 334 fully completed questionnaires were received from participants. The significant findings from this study are the existence of the relationship between the three dimensions of CSR and customer satisfaction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cost Control Measures and Funds Management in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: An Impact Analysis

I. E. Asogwa, E. O. Etim, N. I. Etukafia

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2017/34441


Efficient funds management is critical to the success of tertiary institutions especially in low income countries such as Nigeria where funding of education is abysmal. While available studies investigated cost elasticity on private demand for education in Nigeria, educational policy reform and university funding requirement, the cost centres and the relative cost control measures in Nigeria universities has not been fully explored. Means of cost savings in universities were explored in order to strike a balance between lack, insufficiency and bad management of resources. A survey research was conducted to examine the cost control measures and their ability to enhance funds management in Nigerian universities drawn across the six geopolitical zones of the country estimated under administration, finance and operations. The analyses revealed the weaknesses in the cost centres and shows that a strong positive and significant relationship exist between funds management and university administration, operation and finances with R Square 0.7019. There is a need for streamlined decision making process, greater attention to research and entrenchment of internal control mechanisms in all levels of management. Universities should be more innovative, result driven, and also de-emphasise increase in school enrolment through skills acquisition and training to create alternative jobs and drive the economy.

Open Access Review Article

Human Resource Management Practices and Employee Retention: A Review of Literature

Shaheeb Abdul Azeez

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JEMT/2017/32997

Human Resources (HR) are the most valuable asset in any organisation. Even though organisations advanced with technology, they need HR to run the technology. With this advancement in the industries completion among the organisations are very high. This opens many pathways and opportunities in the hands of the HR. The major challenge by most of the organisation today is not only managing their workforce but also retaining them. Therefore, securing and retention of skilled workforce plays a vital role for any organisation due to knowledge and skills of the employees are central to the institution’s ability to be economically competitive for growth and sustainability. Additionally, employee satisfaction is another HR issue faced by the employers today. When taken to account the importance and sensitivity of the issue retention to any organisation, this study is aimed to identify the relationship between HRM practices and employee retention based on the literature review.