Open Access Original Research Article

Women’s Perspective on Organization and the Alternative Means of Income in Agriculture in Thrace Region Turkey

Gülen Özdemir, Gökhan Unakitan, Emine Yilmaz, Funda Er Ülker, Gülşen Keskin

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30171

This study was conducted in Thrace Region, which is a significant agricultural area in Turkey. The alternative means of income were determined and 477 women, consisting of 94 self-employed women and 383 women working together with their families, were surveyed and their perspectives on alternative means of income and organization were analyzed.

It is ascertained at the end of this study that women do not consider farming as an occupation, even though they work in agricultural sector together with their spouses, that many of them own small scale enterprises, that they are afraid of taking risks, and that they want to receive grants rather than loans. Women’s contribution to labor force is more like unwaged employment in family-run businesses, but there are also considerable number of self-employed women in this region.

The research show that 81% of women stated that there were not any projects regarding alternative means of income in this region. When women were asked to list the alternative income activities according to their significance levels, 70% gave prominence to organic farming. In terms of their perspective on organization, 89% of women stated that they had never participated in any collaborative works in their villages, 53% of women, however, stated that they would have been willing to play an active role if they ever got the opportunity.


Open Access Original Research Article

Does Financial Innovation Drive Growth? Empirical Analysis of the Nigerian Case

I. G. Okafor, Ezeaku Hillary Chijindu, Anyalechi Kenneth Chikezie

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30809

The goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of financial innovation in driving growth in Nigeria using quarterly data from 2009:Q1-2014:Q4. The Least Squares (Gauss-Newton/Marquardt steps) based on vector autoregressive (VAR) system was used to estimate our system model whereas Johansen cointegration test was utilized to test for long-run relationship among our series. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test, descriptive statistics and diagnostic tests were also employed. The results showed that there is a long-run relationship between growth and financial innovation. The findings indicate that financial technological innovations (ATM transactions, Web/internet transactions, POS services and Mobile payments) do not jointly have positive effect on growth. However, the responsiveness of growth to the individual innovation channels varied. Value of transactions via ATM, the internet and mobile payments all have relative positive effect on growth, with the exception of POS channel which exerted a negative influence on growth. We therefore conclude that financial technological innovation has not had the desired effect on the Nigerian economy. This may be due to the fact that these innovative channels are yet to have significant depth required to drive growth. However, we recommend that investment in financial innovation be intensified, and must be accompanied with mass literacy which will aim at educating the citizenry on the need and benefits of effecting financial transactions through the various financial innovation channels. Effective regulations and adequate monitoring are very critical in ensuring security and healthy competitiveness in this area. Going forward, the positive effect of financial innovation will begin to be felt in real terms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Measuring Real Equilibrium Interest Rate: From the Linear Equation of the Taylor Rule to Agent - Based Model

Alexander Dedishchev

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/31353

The aim of this paper is to transform standard Taylor rule linear equation model into agent-based computational (ABC) model. ABC model addresses monetary macroeconomics as a complex evolving system of heterogenous agents whose interactions continuously change the structure of the system.

Our ABC methodology extend the Taylor rule-based model with macroeconomic and global factorsthat account for the variability of the equilibrium interest rate and for the deviations of the actual federal funds rate from the interest rates implied by the Taylor rule.

As a result we compared two models and identified that ABC model allows to better understand forward looking equilibrium interest rate dynamics comparatively to Taylor’s mathematically determined 2% steady state equilibrium interest rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Evaluation of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Irrigated and Un-irrigated Conditions. Division of Agronomy-SKUAST Kashmir

B. Ahmad Lone, Zahoor Ahmad Dar Asma Fayaz, Purshotam Singh, Sameera Qayoom, Gurdeep Singh, Sandeep Kumar

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/32116

Data with respect to yield was taken from Ph.D student Division of Agronomy Shalimar Campus of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir Experiment was conducted during 2012 and 2013 under irrigated and un-irrigated mulched conditions with the objective to study the growth and yield of maize at different planting dates and planting density and to simulate trends of maize production. Experiment was laid in split-plot design assigning four planting dates 15th April, 30th April 15th May and 30th May to main plots and three planting density  50 cm × 20 cm, 60 cm × 20 cm and 70 cm × 20 cm to sub-plots. Maximum energy was consumed in irrigated conditions as compared to Unirrigated mulch conditions i,e 14805 MJ and 13034 MJ respectively. Irrigated maize sowing on 15th April gives highest net returns of Rs.126740 with a B: C ratio of 2.18 was recorded with 50x20 cm spacing which was followed by 60x20 cm with net returns of Rs.87170. As far as energy ratio energy productivity and net energy were also higher with 5.79, 204.6 and 70962 MJ respectively. Un-irrigated mulch maize sow on 15th April gives highest net returns of 87170 with a B: C ratio of 2.18 with 60x20 cm spacing which was followed by 50x20 cm with net returns of Rs 75827. As far as energy ratio energy productivity and net energy were also observed to follow the same trend with 5.82, 182 and 62793 MJ respectively with sowing on 15th April and planted at 50x20 cm apart. For higher energy use efficiency, energy productivity, and net energy, maize crop should be sown on around 15th April with an spacing of 50x20 cm or 60x20 cm under irrigated conditions and should be sown on around 15th April with an spacing of 60X20 cm under Un-irrigated mulch conditions.


Open Access Mini Review Article

Key Performance Indicators - Comparative Analysis for Major Brands of Pharmaceutical Production Industry in Romania

Andreea Gabriela Ponorîcă, Ahmed H. Juhi Al-Saedi, Cristina Iulia Ghenu, Fedaa Abd Almajid Sabbar Alaraji

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30756

Due to the growing importance of emerging markets in Romania, the supply chains of pharmaceutical companies are forced to reevaluate strategies and improve their production and distribution processes. For this reason, it is of utmost importance for the companies that produce pharmaceutical products to define and measure the progress towards their objectives. This study desires to investigate what are the most important financial factors that play role in Romania’s major pharmaceutical brands’ evolution in the past 4 years. For this purpose, quantitative statistical analysis and comparative analysis were used. In order to make the analysis of the selected companies and to establish the most important financial factors we used Key Performance Indicators (KPI) as a research tool that enabled us to determine which factors were playing the major role in their evolution.

Along with the important financial factors that affected the evolution of the companies in the last 4 years the study will also determine if by correlating the net income, the leverage and the asset turnover and by using profitability ratios we can determine the relevance of a company’s price per share towards its investors.