Open Access Original Research Article

Strategic Agility and Competitive Advantage: Exploration of the Ontological, Epistemological and Theoretical Underpinnings

Matthias O. Nkuda

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30979

This paper aims and seeks to explore the question of ontological and epistemological foundations of the major constructs in the study – strategic agility and competitive advantage - by reviewing relevant literature on related theories such as: Game, industrial organisation (I/O), resource-based view (RBV), dynamic capability, institution, population ecology, strategic choice perspective, and organisation learning theories. The main purpose is to ensure that the study on strategic agility and competitive advantage in Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Nigeria meets the scientific prescription that every research worth its salt must be rooted in and traced to a specific baseline theory (ies) within, in this case, the body of management theory. Hence, a review of literature was carried out to trace and identify the specific theory (ies) in which to ground the study. Based on the insights gained from the literature review, we have opted to anchor the study on dynamic capability perspective (DCP) which is an extension of the resource-based-view (RBV), strategic choice perspective (SCP), organization learning (OLT) and industrial organization (I/O) theories which culminate in what we refer to as RBIO hybrid theory. It is significant to add that the outcome of this study would go a long way to enrich the extant literature in the field of strategic management in particular and knowledge within the purview of management in general.


Open Access Original Research Article

Trends and Prospects for the Convergence of Public-private Partnerships` Financial Potential in Ukrainian Regions

Viktoriia Tyschenko, Iryna Hubarieva, Viktoriia Ostapenko

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30654

Aims: In Ukraine, the development of partnership between the state and business is at an early stage, especially has not explored the need and PPPs` financial potential for Ukrainian regional development. The possibility of using public-private partnership in the implementation of regional development programs in local economic and institutional realities has not identified. That can be achieved in the presence of convergent-divergent trends for PPPs` public, private and financial and credit levels in Ukrainian regions. This identified the necessity the analysis of Ukraine's regions in terms of convergence the levels of PPPs` financial potential.

The main aim of the research is to identify convergent-divergent processes (convergence / zoom) Ukrainian regions in terms of potential public-private partnership and analyse the prospects and directions of approaching depressed Ukrainian regions to more advance.

Study Design: The reviews were carried out in the period 2003–14 on the basis of studying the Ukrainian region development trends of PPPs` financial potential as well as on the basis of the research results obtained by country statistics.

Place and Duration of Study: Research Centre for Industrial Development Problems of NAS of Ukraine, Simon Kuznets Kharkiv National University of economics, Department of Financial services management between January 2014 and December 2015.

Methodology: Regression analysis and bibliographic retrieval have been used as the main methods of research, which allowed making a meaningful analysis of classic papers and researches of modern economists-practitioners devoted to the peculiarities of the Ukrainian trends in convergent-divergent trends for PPPs` financial potential. Computations were performed in Application Software Package “Statistica 8”.

Results: The article demonstrates a procedure for determining the convergent-divergent trends and justification of prospects for increasing the public-private partnerships` financial potential in Ukrainian regions, which is the based on the adjustment of the financial policy. There was calculated the probability of transition regions to cluster a higher level of PPPs` financial potential. Proceeding from it there was advice for the state support this process which will increase the financial potential sectors PPP in Ukrainian regions.

Conclusion: Regions with a high probability cluster 3 require significant state support and formation of appropriate financial incentives to empower their development. Competence in government financial policy to prevent a significant decline against the backdrop of some other areas, by creating a system of relationships between the regions and the competitive advantages of the least developed among them.

Overall, the apparent disparity of Ukrainian regions for public-private partnership financial potential requires the formulation of proposals to help create conditions for interregional equalization. Additional analysis will identify factors that causes affect the process of convergence Ukrainian regions for levels of PPPs` financial potential and provide guidance for the development of competitive advantages of the least developed regions.


Open Access Original Research Article

Methodological Principles of Formation of Tariffs for Railway

Revutska Olena, Filatov Volodumur, Litvinenko Andriy, Cherkashyna Tetiana

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30476

Aim: Aim of this paper is to research the approaches that affect the efficiency of government regulation of tariff for railway transportation industry in both sectors in scientific and methodological way.

Study Design: The study uses an Exploratory Design.

Place and Duration of Study: Ukraine, between the periods 2015 to 2016.

Methodology: Employed was the Narrative Textual Case Study (NTCS) method, while non-probability and convenience sampling technique was used to select the sample size.

Results: The study found that in the current economic conditions the implementation of administrative regulatory infrastructure component makes use of unilateral restriction that allows the cost recovery fees for services infrastructure and determine the volume of necessary financial support in case of unprofitable rates. Regarding the operational component, the creation of tariff conditions for competition requires bilateral limit, which allows to determine the economically justified the lower and upper boundaries within which the price depending on the factors set fees sphere of operation. This approach to pricing regulation in potentially competitive sector allows carriers to limit the boundaries of flexibility to respond to changing conditions of transport markets, consider the price elasticity of demand, positive trends in the use of the laws of the market economy. Sharing unilateral restrictions to justify the fees for services natural monopoly and bilateral - in potentially competitive services sector is a competitive motivational method of pricing, which meet the requirements of effective functioning of natural monopolies in the market environment, and provides irreversible monopolization of potentially competitive  sectors.

Conclusion: Motivating the price competitive regulation will establish market-oriented competitive tariffs for freight and passenger transportations, and also promote creation of conditions for adaptation of railway transport to enhance competition in the transport market.


Open Access Original Research Article

Profitability of Agricultural Enterprises in Ukraine (On the Case of Lviv Region): Assessment of Trends and Interdependencies

Tetjana O. Shmatkovska, Olena V. Stashchuk

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/28637

The main objectives of the study are generalization of the economic essence of the process of profitability formation, discovery of its tendencies and conditions of the agricultural producers in Lviv region. The research was conducted basing on the results of the activity of agricultural enterprises, issued by Main Statistic Administration in Lviv region in 2009 – 2013. The paper determines that profit of agricultural enterprises is the source of its development through reinvestment and is also the basis of stable activity and fulfils a social function in the context of providing employment for rural population. The article proves that the profitability of an agricultural enterprise is its economic state, that displays the realized and potential ability to generate a positive financial result from the implementation of both the main (related to agricultural production), and the whole business. According to results of the research of profitability of the agricultural producers in Lviv region for 2009 – 2013, the instability and heterogeneity of their development, manifested in large variation of parameters of profitability, were detected. The article proves that the application of special preferential tax treatment influences on the profitability of agricultural enterprises positively but not sufficienty.


Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness of Textile and Apparel Industry: An Empirical Analysis for China and Bangladesh

Md. Ekram Hossain, Huang Dechun, Changzheng Zhang, Vu Thi Van

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30840

Aims: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the level of comparative advantage and competitiveness of Textile and Apparel (T&A) industry of Bangladesh and China in the global market. It also tries to link the competitiveness analysis with the trade theories of comparative advantage to synthesize different approaches of competitiveness recommending with policy implications.

Place and Duration of Study: We used the two digit classification of Harmonized System (HS) data of 14 main products of Textile and Apparel industry of Bangladesh and China over the period from 2000 to 2015.

Methodology: The proposed approach is based on the Balassa revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Spearman Rank Correlation coefficient (rs) to examine the comparative advantage and competitiveness respectively for 14 main products of Textile and Apparel industry of Bangladesh and China. For calculation of RCA values, the export data have been taken from UN COMTRADE, an electronic database of the United Nations. To calculate the trends of trade between the two nations and individual industries, we used the database of Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA), database of International Trade Center (ITC), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) database.

Results: The findings show that during this 16 years period, among the 14 products; Bangladesh improved her comparative advantage over 7 products, lowered over 5 products and remained quite unchanged over 2 products whereas China improved her comparative advantage over 8 products lowered over 2 products and remained quite unchanged over 4 products. According to the Competitiveness analysis of the 14 products; 3 products exhibit higher competition, 6 products exhibit modest competition and 5 products exhibit complementary between Bangladesh and China in global market. As a result, policy implications were discussed in this paper.

Conclusion: In this paper revealed comparative advantage has been analyzed at the two digit level of HS classification for both Bangladesh and China. The implications reveal that the three main stakeholders of T&A; the government, manufacturers, and buyers must work together to realize the potential of textile and apparel market for both Bangladesh and China. It is suggested for both countries to improve the industrial competitive advantage through human resource exploitation strategy and innovation in science and technology. Improving product and market diversification and reducing the lead time also suggested for improving the competitiveness of Bangladesh’s T&A industry.


Open Access Short Research Articles

The Antecedents of Behavioral Intensions: The Conceptual Approach towards Servicescapes and Its Consequences

Haseebullah Abdul Naeem

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30424

Going to shopping mall is not a new trend. But when it comes to the research then there is still gap which needs serious considerations from emerging researchers. The aim of this conceptual approach is to find the consequences of servicescaps model, which was previously presented by [7]. This conceptual approach was taken in consideration after reviewing the past literature. In this approach, Ambience condition, Interaction and Design of shopping mall took as antecedents from the servicescapes model presented by [7]. Behavioral intentions were considering as the consequences of the study.


Open Access Short Research Articles

An Evaluation of Domestic Gas Utilization on the Nigerian Economy

R. U. Onolemhemhen, T. J. Laniran, S. O. Isehunwa, A. Adenikinju

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2017/30438

Natural gas has continued to experience high patronage over the years, largely due to its efficiency as an energy source. Economic growth literature posits that there is a relationship between energy consumption and growth. More recent literature have argued for the efficiency of the form of energy used. The robustness of this relationship is however often questioned. Indeed natural gas remains one of the most efficient forms of energy source, and it is found in abundance in Nigeria with a proven reserve of over 180 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and the ninth country in the world regarding proven natural gas reserves. Hence, given the significant outlays of natural gas to economic growth, this study attempts an evaluation of domestic gas utilisation in Nigeria. Key macroeconomic variables with the theoretical potential of influencing the level of gas utilised in Nigeria were subjected to econometric model testing using time series data from 1980 to 2013. The result in conformity with literature reflected that gas plays a pivotal role in the Nigerian economic advancement.