Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Green Purchasing Behaviors: Some Insights from Tamale, Ghana

Joseph Agebase Awuni, Jianguo Du, Ethel Yiranbon

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/27676

Green purchasing can reduce negative environmental impacts as well as promote sustainable development. As related literature from the African context is limited, this paper tries to bridge the gap by investigating the green purchasing behaviors of residents in the Tamale Metropolitan area of Ghana. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) served as a theoretical framework for identifying the main antecedents of green purchasing behavior. Standard and hierarchical regression techniques are used to analyze data gathered from 325 residents of the city. The results indicates that the TPB variables explained 44.4% of the variance in green purchasing intentions, but only 13.2% of the intentions are translated into actual behavior. Academically, this study has provided further evidence for the application of the theory of planned behavior in explaining environmentally responsible purchasing behaviors. Practically, this study has enhanced understanding of the antecedents of green purchasing behaviors among the urban residents and has also provided useful information which could aid in crafting suitable policies for a transition towards more sustainable consumption patterns in a developing country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Role of Financial Institutions in Growth and Productivity of Micro and Small Enterprises in Yirgalem Town Administration; Sidama Zone, Ethiopia

Bezabih Zerihun Buae, Yonas Shuke Kitawa

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/25814

MSEs have become important economic activities particularly in providing employment and other business activities for unemployed and low income households. The objective of this study is to determine the role of financial institutions in growth and productivity of MSEs in Yirgalem town. For the study, 132 members of MSEs were randomly selected by using stratified random sampling and data from selected individuals have been collected by using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data and multiple linear regression was used to find the role of financial and non-financial factors in growth and productivity of MSEs. The study result revealed that factors like access to bank and finance, level of criteria expected to fulfill for borrowing, loan sufficiency, inefficiency of time allowed and other support like motivation and training are significant predictors from role of bank and micro-finance in growth and productivity of MSEs. Age of the MSEs Members, educational level, main activities, experience, and service were significant demographic factors. The growth and productivity of MSEs increase by 4.409 and 3.2 percent respectively for every one level increase in education holding all other factors constant and like.  Thus, minimizing the level of criteria required to access money, improving accessibility of capital, sufficient loan and improving education of the members; it is possible to make MSEs profitable and productive.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Non-bank Financial Institutions on Financial Intermediation Process in Nigeria (1992-2014)

Nwakoby Clement Ndukaife Ikechukwu, Ananwude Amalachukwu Chijindu

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/28359

The role of non-bank financial institution towards financial intermediation process in Nigeria is not fully noticed. It is against this background that we assess the effect of non-bank financial institutions on financial intermediation process as well as the long run relationship between non-bank financial institutions and financial intermediation process in Nigeria for the period 1992 to 2014. Before we estimated the model, we subjected the model to diagnostic test of heteroskedasticity, serial correlation, Ramsey specification and multicollinearity test. The unit root test was conducted for all the variables to ensure they are free from stationarity defect. The long run relationship was tested using the Johansen co-integration approach and the effect assessment by granger causality effect test. The unit root result indicates that the variables were stationary at first difference and free from stationarity defect associated with most time series data. Johansen co-integration result reveals the presence of a long run relationship between non-bank financial institutions and financial intermediation process in Nigeria. The granger causality test on effect assessment reveals that it is only primary mortgage institutions activities that have significant effect on financial intermediation process while there is no evidence of the significant effect of discount houses, microfinance banks and finance companies on financial intermediation process. In view of the positive relationship between non-bank financial institutions and financial intermediation process, monetary authorities should put in place adequate regulatory framework for the operation of non-bank financial institutions in Nigeria especially primary mortgage institutions as it has significant effect on financial intermediation process based on the finding of this study.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Fundamentals of the Theory and Methodology of Operational Control

Kateryna P. Melnyk, Tetjana O. Shmatkovska

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/28050

The main objectives of the study are to investigate, analyze and evaluate scientific positions of scientists - economists in relation to the economic content of operational control and its importance as a management function; find out its differences from other forms and types of control and to isolate it in a separate category. Place and Duration of Study Lutsk National Technical University, Educational and Scientific Center «Institute of agrarian economy», Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, 2014 – 2016. Analyzed scientific conclusions about the nature of operational control both in Ukraine and abroad by 27 scientists and economists. Found that 63% of them are distinguished only current control, a small part of them identify it from operating. 33% - prefer the operative with some comparison of it with the current one. 1% - deny the existence of a current, and operational control. Quantitatively percent analysis does not give a complete picture to the theoretical nature of operational control, but resulting makes critically evaluate scientific positions of previous researchers. The theoretical content of operational control was investigated in the light of the evaluation and analysis a number of control classifications as a whole range by different authors. Found that separation is possible with classification of control on the following classification criteria: Frequency of its realization, time of the implementation, the target direction, purpose, forms of organization. Proved that operational control is performed in the process of business operations as soon as possible, ensuring the efficiency of the entire economic process. It is aimed at an informed management decisions, because there is, as in their adoption and implementation as in the evaluation of quality. Operational control, as a guarantor of effective management activities, increases its importance in the modern world. Therefore it is necessary to explore and improve the theory and practice of its implementation.

 

Open Access Short Research Articles

Modern Approaches to Classification of Biotechnology as a Part of NBIC-Technologies for Bioeconomy

Igor Matyushenko, Iryna Sviatukha, Larysa Grigorova-Berenda

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/28151

Aims: The aim of the article is to systematize and improve existing theoretical approaches to the classification of biotechnology as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.

Study Design: The reviews were carried out in the period 2005–15 on the basis of studying the world countries biotechnologies development trends as well as on the basis of the research results obtained by World and Ukrainian institutions and universities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of International Economic Relations and Tourism Business of VN Karazin Kharkiv National University conducted the research between January 2016 and June 2016.

Methodology: Content analysis and bibliographic retrieval have been used as the main methods of research, which allowed making a meaningful analysis of classic papers and works of modern economists-practitioners devoted to the Global and Ukrainian trends in biotechnologies’ scientific research as a part of NBIC-technologies for bioeconomy.

Results: The article demonstrates that currently there is no common and unified classification of biotechnology. The authors systematized existing approaches to biotech typology by a wide range of criteria (objects, the level of human impact to biological systems, technologies, colours, and area of application) and proposed to improve them. The authors analyzed the “colour” classification, found its inconsistencies and disadvantages (e.g. separation of “white” biotechnology from “grey” one or expediency of “violet” biotechnology in this classification). With the help of the input-output matrix the authors expanded the scope of relationships between different biotech fields by supplementing new biotech application examples at the intersections of branches, adding extra fields (“brown”, “black”, “gold”, and “violet”) and particular cases of their interactions, namely, they: expanded the scope of application as to biomedicine, explained the role of biomedicine for development of bioterrorism as a feedstock supplier, defined the impact of biopharmaceutics on food industry and bioterrorism by means of concrete examples, considered industrial biotechnology as a platform for biomedicine development and supporting force for such a negative endeavor as bioterrorism, characterized the role of agricultural biotechnology in biopharmaceutics enhancement, added examples of interaction between arid zones and desert biotechnology on the one hand and food industry/ biopharmaceutics on the other hand, identified the area of arid zones and desert biotechnology application, included potential application of scientific results for enhancement of industrial biotechnology. Moreover, the authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the ties between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization.

Conclusion: The authors developed the hierarchical model that reflects the relationships between platform technologies (regenerative technologies, genetic engineering, synthetic biology, etc.), biotechnologies, and bioeconomy as a new type of economy based on biotechnology commercialization. The enhanced version of the input-output matrix “origin - application” is a perspective pattern to be supplemented with the progress of global biotechnology industry, because it includes all the biotech branches that currently are more or less represented in the world. In addition, the model can be transformed and adapted for biotech industry of any country by reducing or splitting of the branches.

 

Open Access Review Article

Factors Influencing Consumer Preference for Sweat Potato in Namibia, Case Study from Windhoek

M. Y. Teweldemedhin, G. M. Mulonda

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/27336

The aim of this study was to analyse factors affecting consumers’ preferences. The study was conducted in Windhoek; multiple stage sampling was employed to collect data. That is first stage was cluster sampling methods (to characterise the population to lower, middle and higher income); then followed to random sampling. In total 353 individual face to face interviews was conducted. Data was analysed using Logistic regression, key finding of the study finding age of the household and employment status being negatively linked and bigger weight implying that increase in these two parameters will lead to small consumption. On the other hand the positive sign for family size stay in the house was found as hypothesised. Shows the responsibility and creativity increases with different option of preference. This makes it necessary for the family to diversify the source of diet, further look for healthy food. The gender of the farmer was found to be positive and significant, whereas age was found to be negative and significant. This implies that female consumers trying to avoid any risk health related. The study recommended that demographic shifts create the need for marketers to keep pace with change and identify with and predict future demand.

 

Open Access Case Reports / Case Studies

Analysis of the Performance of Rwanda Trade in Services and Regional Integration

Hategekimana Uzziel, Gasheja Faustin

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/28001

Rwanda as a least developed country is in economic transformation process for which it aimed at moving from agrarian based economy to knowledge and private sector led economy thereby agricultural labor intensive activities get replaced by industry and service dominance. With economic reforms and policies aligned with vision 2020, service sector became major contributor of the Rwanda GDP (47% compared to 33% for agriculture and 14% for industry). Thus, our research on the analysis of the performance of Rwanda trade in services and regional integration was carried out with the aim of analyzing various trends in trade in services of Rwanda over five year period (2010 to 2014). 

The results show that, trade in services value considerably improved (Frw1604 to 2536 billion) over five years 2010-2014, which makes service sector major contributor in the country’s GDP. The sector itself is dominated by trade and transport services (33% of total service value) while financial services which deemed to finance engine of the whole economy counts minor share (5% of total service value). Moreover, unlike trade in goods, external trade for Rwanda trade in services marked good performance by reducing trade deficit for about 4 times over five years 2010-2014.

In conclusion therefore, Rwandan economy is becoming leveraged on trade in services. As it is facing limited natural resources endowments, Rwanda should continue to embody trade in services in its economic reform and policies. But still, industrialization particularly for agricultural harvest would add value even to service sector contribution.