Economic Integration Problem of Turkey: An Evaluation about Shanghai Cooperation Organization within the Frame of Alternative Searches
Journal of Economics, Management and Trade,
When the economic developments analyzed after World War II, the economic integration movements, which include the liberalization of countries’ economic relations between each other, draw attention. In terms of world trade, globalization tendencies on one hand and regionalization tendencies on the other hand are being experienced. While global trade is shaped by Customs Tariffs and GATT, which propose the elimination of the limitations for customs tariffs and other trade limitations between countries, regional economic integrations are shaped differently between the countries that are geographically close to each other. Turkey has been found in the global and regional economic integration initiatives; and it’s in the negotiation phase for the EU membership, while the country is already a member of World Trade Organization (WTO), The Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation (D-8), Organization of the Black Sea Economic Organization (BSEC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The fact that Turkey’s attempts for global-regional economic and political integrations did not give the expected results has brought different searches. This study contains an evaluation of Turkey’s seek for new integrations as determinants of democracy in the scale of democratic index, which consists of some criteria like free and fair elections, pluralism, good governance, political participation, political culture and freedom, and an evaluation between EU and SCO alternatives. In the light of the assessment it has been concluded that SCO is not a suitable alternative for Turkey because of the fact that its priority is zone’s safety, it does not contain economic cooperation and its inefficient democratic foundation comparing with the EU. According to these facts, Turkey should continue with the EU membership negotiations and it should show necessary sensitivity for adjusting to Copenhagen political criteria which forms EU’s political criteria, and Maastricht economic criteria which forms EU’s economic criteria.