Open Access Original Research Article

Structure and Dynamic of Economy and Its Links with Population Well-being in Burkina Faso from 1990 to 2015

Dalomi Bahan, Latif Dramani

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22730

The main objective of this paper is to investigate the structure and dynamic of Burkina Faso’s economy during the last 25 years (1990-2015) and to know in what extent the economic growth saved during this period contributed to improve the living conditions of the population. To respond to these questions we used data of national account and data from five household surveys (EP I 1994, EP II 1998, EBCVM 2003, EICVM 2009, EMC 2014). All data are produced by National Institute of Statistic and Demography (INSD). The methodology used is descriptive analysis by conducting an univariate and bivariate analysis and the statistical approach of Kakwani.

The results indicate that during the period, the annual average growth observed varies from 1.9 percent in 2000 to 8.7 percent in 2006. However, for Gross Domestic Product, we have two main findings: (i) 2000 and 2009 have negative growth rate (-1.5% and 0.5% respectively); (ii) For the other year of the period, the growth rate varied between 1.2 percent and 5.3 percent. Globally, we observe that for all years, the annual growth rate for GDP is higher than annual growth rate for GDP per capita.

The main sector in terms of contribution to Gross domestic Product between 2000 and 2012 is the tertiary sector regardless of the year of the period. Even if, it is not easy to measure the contribution of informal sector to the economy, the analysis of available data indicates that its contribution is estimated to more than 48 percent. Despite the economic growth saved, we have not observed improvement in the living conditions of population between 1990 and 2009 according the poverty indicators. Moreover, poverty increased after 1994 and the country has not yet managed to reach level observed in 1994. After 2009, poverty rose sharply to 40% in 2014.

In the light of these findings, the implementation of economic policies and socio-economic programs that are likely to promote pro-poor economic growth would be more effective than a high growth policy if we want to improve the living conditions of the most disadvantaged. Furthermore, as the country has undertaken to have advantage of the demographic dividend, it is important to develop appropriate economic policies to achieve structural transformation of economy of Burkina Faso.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

The Differences among the Levels of Emigrants Jordanian Tourists Satisfaction in Arabian Gulf Countries on the Strategies of Tourism Marketing in Jordan due to Demographic Features

Mashael Saqer Al Khasawneh, Yaser Uisa Almomany, Akif Lutfi Al-Khasawneh

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22835

The study aimed at identifying the differences among the levels of emigrants Jordanian tourists' satisfaction in Arabian gulf countries about reality of applying strategies of tourism marketing including (strategy of tourism productions, strategy of Prices of tourism products, strategy of promotion of tourism products, strategy of distribution of tourism products, strategy of tourism products employees, strategy of  physical environment of service, and operations strategy to provide tourist services) on the different tourist Jordanian locations. In addition to identify the impact of applying these strategies on Jordanian tourism expat's satisfaction. Analytical descriptive approach has been used for population of the study that consisted of Jordanian tourist expats. (845) of questionnaires were distributed depending on snow ball method. (779) of questionnaires were considered retrieval. The study revealed that there are statistical significant about the level of satisfaction for demographic features of tourists on strategies of tourism marketing expect gender which didn’t shown any difference. There are no statistical significant about the level of satisfaction on strategic product promotion due to job sector of tourists.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors that Influence the Glass Ceiling. Evidence from Formal Sector Organisations in Ghana

Eunice Aidoo, Diana Cyndy Achira

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22729

The objective of this study is to investigate some of the factors that impede on the careers of women. The study is intended to help come out with guidelines for HR practitioners in Ghanaian organisations on how to enhance the career advancement of women as well as help policy makers in making decisions that concerns improvement of the conditions and standard of living of women in Ghana. This research is made up of a literature review which analyses various theories related to the glass ceiling and supported by a survey and semi-structure interviews using themes developed from the literature review. The survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to workers in the formal sector who met the respondent specification since purposive sampling technique was used. Also, the snowball sampling was used to identify women in upper levels of organisations for the semi-structured interviewees since their experience on the research topic was crucial to their selection. In all, 50 questionnaires were answered and 3 semi-structured interviewees were conducted in three formal sector organisations in Ghana. The respondents were men and women in subordinate and management positions. The findings from the study revealed that there are few women at the top levels of organisations. This indicates that certain factors prevent women from getting to the upper levels of organisations which signals the existence of the glass ceiling. Also, it was realised that there were four factors which influence the existence of the glass ceiling in organisations. These factors are; the role of the government, organisational barriers, the influence of the society and the contributions made by women themselves.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Public Spending for Growth – Induced Employment: The Nigerian Experience

Samuel O. Okafor, Kenneth Jegbefumwen

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22685

Rising unemployment has become a global phenomenon with its attendant social vices. Both developed and developing countries now grapple to cope with the problems of unemployment arising from global recession. Unemployment in Nigeria has assumed a more dangerous dimension with over 40 million Nigerian youths not having any chances of securing jobs in the next 10 years. The lack of elaborate employment policy has made matters worse. Efforts in this article were focused on identifying potent factors in public spending –economic growth-government revenue-employment nexus which could be constituted into dynamic employment policy instruments. The study revealed that deficit financing of recurrent expenditure was a most important single factor inhibiting public spending from inducing economic growth for employment generation. It was recommended, inter alia, that to ensure its efficiency, tax policy, pricing policy, exchange – rate policy and credit policy should form integral components of a country’s employment policy.   

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Bitcoin: Main Trends and Perspectives

N. E. Egorova, K. A. Torzhevskiy

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/19763

Background: Methodological ground for Bitcoin (BTC) as a variation of private money was settled by F. von Hayek (Denationalization of Money: An Analysis of the Theory and Practice of Concurrent Currencies - London Institute of Economic Affairs, 1976). Article takes a point of view on BTC as a modern example of private money based on IT - technology and principles of cryptocurrency exchange.

Aims: We aimed to define BTC specifics as a competitive alternative currency and to establish its main trends and perspectives.

Study Design: Analytical review.

Place and Duration of Study: CEMI Russian Academy of Sciences, 2013-2015.

Methodology: Methodology is based on complex approach which includes retrospective analysis of historical events, predating the appearance of BTC, formally logical look on main problems for BTC user likely to encounter; and an IT-leading exert evaluation method to forecast its main trends and perspectives.

Results: We have established a set of mathematical equations to reflect main source of income for BTC-user; covered potential perspectives of BTC (based on this set), in case of different development scenarios (different types of government regulations on BTC) including low purchasing capacities during imposed restriction.

Conclusion: BTC is an important innovation in a financial exchange. Very fact of it emergence reflects todays main modern trend towards "information society". Exchange systems like BTC (improved, revised, upgraded) should take it rightful place in everyday life.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimating the Effect of Maternal and Child Health Outcomes to GDP per Capita

Jandryle U. Trondillo

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22802

Background: Using panel data from 1960 to 2013 of 193 UN countries, this paper explored the effect of maternal and child health outcomes specific to GDP per capita.

Objective: To explore the effect of MDG 4 and 5 to per capita GDP of UN countries.

Methods: Data gathered from World Bank were averaged from 1960 to 2013 and was normalized using lagged logarithmic form to fit in the parameters required to run multiple linear regression.

Results: The combination of variables indicating maternal and child health outcomes significantly predicted the effect to GDP per capita at 99% (p<0.01, F=199.664, df=4,171) with all four variables significantly contributing to the final model. The beta weights suggest that a percentage decrease in infant mortality rate per 1000 live births, maternal mortality rate per 1000 live births and proportion of births attended by skilled personnel contribute a percentage increase in the GDP per capita in US dollars while a percentage increase in the proportion of children immunized with measles contributes a percentage increase in the GDP per capita in US dollars.

Conclusion: Utilizing the empirical model, the maternal and child health outcomes have a minimum effect of 2.32% to 4.81% to GDP per capita.

 

Open Access Short Research Articles

Tourists’ Security: The Need for Tourism Police in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Mehmet Murat Payam

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/23135

This paper aims to show the necessity of tourism police for tourism destinations, give some knowledge about the relationship between tourism and tourism security and present some practical recommendations on tourism police for Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is accepted that tourism is a vital revenue source for many countries. It is also a fast-growing sector making up an important part in the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, too. It is also accepted that tourists are affected by the perception of safety and security at the destinations. Studies made on tourism indicate that safety and security is a factor of growing importance in choosing the destination and having a peaceful holiday at destinations. In addition, safety and security is considered to be a pillar of tourism competitiveness with ‘reliability of police services’ a central anchor in Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report. Without doubt, safety and security will sell the tourism in the near future. Thus, it is believed that “Tourism Police” may help create the destination image and market the tourism. For this purpose, the Tourism Police should be set up in order to provide security to the tourists visiting Bosnia and Herzegovina as any investments in tourism policing could be an investment in the economic future of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this regard, some practical recommendations will be put forward for improving police protection of tourists in Bosnia and Herzegovina.