Open Access Original Research Article

Credit Risk Management in Agricultural Development Bank in Ghana: Evidence from Volta Region

Albert Laurent Sakabutu

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22669

Credit risk has been a key area of interest not only to financial players but also to everyone in the business and economic community around the globe. This is because the risk of a business client or customers not meeting their promises fully and on time can impact negatively on the other party to the trade or agreement. While financial institutions have faced difficulties over the years for various reasons, most of the crucial banking challenges continues to be directly linked to improper investment risk management, relaxed credit standards for customer, or insensitivity to changes in economic or other circumstances that can worsen the credit situation of a bank. This study assesses the effectiveness of credit risk management in Agricultural Development Bank Ghana Limited in the Volta Region. Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in the study. Purposive sampling was used to collect primary data from the staffs of the credit departments and customers of all ADB Ghana Ltd branches in the region. Inferences were drawn using descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that the bank employed mostly the judgmental approach to credit assessment where the assessor’s experience and understanding of the case to the decision to extend or refuse credit is most crucial. It was also revealed that the bank’s objective of managing credit risk has been mostly achieved due to the mechanisms put in place by the bank’s risk management department. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the staff of the credit department must continually be trained to strengthen them to improve upon their performance and a platform created to educate customers on the amount of capital the bank loses and its accompanying consequences when they fail to payback their loans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Barriers to Reporting Medication Administration Errors among Nurses in an Accredited Hospital in Saudi Arabia

Ala’a Z. Mohammad, Ibrahim Abdullah Aljasser, Bokkasam Sasidhar

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22774

Aims: The purpose of this study is to identify the main barriers in reporting Medication Administration Errors (MAEs) among multicultural registered nurses in Saudi Arabia and also to explore the relationship between the nurses’ demographic variables and their perception of reporting MAEs. 

Study Design: This study was based on a questionnaire survey.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study, whereby responses were collected from 300 nurses of King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Stratified sampling of nurses was employed for selecting the samples to represent the nine specialized hospitals. The data was collected by meeting the customers face to face. Every question was explained to respondents so that nurses can understand the requirement of each barrier considered. The data collected was analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21.

Results: Administrative response was the main perceived barrier to MAE reporting, followed by fear barriers. The significant administrative barriers include emphasizing the MAE as measure of the quality of nursing care provided, and focusing on the individual rather than looking at the systems as a potential cause of the error. It is observed that nurses with bachelor degree and non-Saudis exhibit higher perception levels of barriers in reporting MAE. However, other demographic factors such as age, gender, experience and attending the training and orientation programs are not significantly related to the overall barriers in reporting MAE.

Open Access Original Research Article

National Environmental Factors for Implementing Total Quality Environmental Management in the Libyan Food Industry

Abdelsalam Saad, Daizhong Su, Phillipa Marsh, Zhongmin Wu

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/23182

Aims: Investigates national environmental factors on implementing total quality environmental management (TQEM) in the Libyan food industry (LFI), in order to develop modern managerial techniques.

Study Design: A questionnaire was conducted with 62 managers and 518 employees from three companies in the LFI.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Libya, the fieldwork was conducted in 2013.

Methodology: Using existing measures obtained from the literature and new ones specifically developed for this research, a battery of items was derived to investigate technical capability, organizational culture, competition, government policy and human resource.

Results: The results revealed that, five national environmental factors are identified. The findings show that the social responsibility factor is a new phenomenon that has not generally been studied in Libya, and particularly not in the LFI.

Conclusion: This research contributes to the knowledge by investigating the national environmental factors for implementation of TQEM in a different context (i.e., the Arab/North African context). The findings provide a valuable basis to establish a framework model for the implementation of the TQEM in the Libyan context.

Open Access Original Research Article

Export - Employment Relations in Transition Economies

Osman Salih Kadi, Filiz Kadi

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22784

Transition economies have entered to the literature of economy with the collapse of the Eastern bloc and dissolution of the USSR's.  For many years, these countries had been managed by the centrally planned economic system. In the central planned economic system, the government was main actor in all sectors of economies. These countries had been closed to foreign market when they recently have met exportation and started trade relation with the other countries. By shifting to the market economy, the public sector has given its duty to private sectors; in the early years of independency due to insufficient production process many problems such as unemployment and inflation emerged. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of export on employment during the transition period. The paper has analyzed the long and short term relationships between exports and employment in twenty-two transition economies by using data covering the years 1993-2011. Estimation results of the study support the relationship between exports and employment in the context of transition economies. Based on the findings, there is a long run relationship between exports and employment. It has been found that employment has the explanatory power on export in the second model. In the second model where export is dependent variable, the long-term coefficient is more powerful and error correction coefficient is negative and significant in nine countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Assessment of Effectiveness of Marketing Mix as a Satisfaction Tool at Local Authorities in Ghana

Isaac Theophilus Ampah

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22239


-     To find out the extent of marketing mix adoption in Ghanaian local authority setting.

-   To investigate the factors that hinder smooth adoption of marketing mix Ghanaian local authorities.

-     To find out whether effective adoption of marketing mix really leads to customer satisfaction.

-    To highlight any other findings which are essential and can contribute to effective marketing mix adoption in Ghanaian local authorities.

Place and Duration: Takoradi Polytechnic, School of Business Studies, Department of Marketing, From January 2015-June 2015.

Methodology: 185 respondents from 25 out of 216 local authorities were purposively selected. Structured self-completion questionnaire, journal, internet and local government books were used to collect data. Data was analysed using frequencies, mean, standard deviation and factor analysis.

Results: 6 finance officer, 11 coordinating and 8 other positions (management) as well as 38 traditional rulers, 42 assembly members, 41 community members and 39 unit committee members (stakeholders) were sample from 25 out 216 local authorities in Ghana. Summary of views of respondents (management) about marketing mix as a satisfaction tool on a likert scale (1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree and 5= strongly agree) were skewed towards neutral 84% and 60% disagreeing (See Tables 4 and 6). From stakeholders perspective marketing mix adoption among local authorities in Ghana is low with 33.1%, 34.1%, 31.9% and 0.6% of respondents indicating none, low, medium and high respectively (see Table 2).

Conclusion: The study concluded that marketing mix adoption among local authorities in Ghana is low and also its usage as customer satisfaction tool is ineffective. Furthermore, it was found that the 7ps (product, price, promotion, place, people, process and physical evidence) on their own is inadequate to satisfy customers in local authorities in Ghana.

Open Access Review Article

Integration, Inclusion, Development in the Financial Sector and Economic Growth Nexus in SADC: Empirical Review

Oscar Chiwira, Malebogo Bakwena, Cristopher Mupimpila, Jonah B. Tlhalefang

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/21914

Aims: The study examines the relationship between financial development, integration, inclusion and economic growth.

Study Design: Empirical literature review.

Place and Duration of Study: Southern African Development Community (SADC), January 1980 to December 2011.

Conclusion: Empirical evidence suggests mixed effect of financial integration and inclusion on economic growth. While some studies argue that financial integration has positive impact on economic growth, others state that financial integration has a negative impact on economic growth. On the other hand, some studies consider sound financial development to be a pre-requisite for financial integration to have positive impact on economic growth. Financial inclusion is believed to have a positive or negative impact on economic growth. Some studies ascertain that the positive growth impact from the financial inclusion does not hold in economies characterised by low financial development. Literature reveals that the direction of causality between financial development and economic growth is uncertain. The SADC region present a unique sample of countries where a lot of initiatives have been taken to embrace financial integration, inclusion and development through, for example, strategic plans, policy frameworks, protocols declarations, charters, as well as memoranda of understanding. In the SADC region, Botswana, Mauritius, Namibia and South Africa are the most banked countries. The types of financial intermediaries across SADC member states include central banks, commercial banks, money lenders, unit trust companies, pension funds, non-bank deposit-taking institutions, foreign exchange dealers, mutual banks, stockbroking firms and primary dealers. Countries with no stock exchanges are Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lesotho as well as Madagascar. South Africa exerts some influence on the financial sector performance in the region.

Open Access Case Reports / Case Studies

The Control Mechanisms for Effective Disbursement and Utilization of the District Assembly€™s Common Fund in the Karaga District of Northern Ghana

Maxwell Okrah

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2016/22266

This study seeks to measure the effectiveness of the internal control mechanisms in the disbursement and utilization of the District Assembly Common Fund (DACF) in Ghana (with Karaga District Assembly as a case in point). The study employed both primary and secondary data. The research revealed the following as its major findings; the existence of internal control mechanisms for the disbursement and utilization of the fund with the major ones essentially being the use of approved budget as a basis for the disbursement of the fund and that there should be an internal audit unit, factors such as politicization of issues, ignorance and ineffectiveness of the assembly members to monitor the use of the fund and inadequate professional staff militates against the effectiveness of the internal control mechanisms and the smooth operations of the DACF. The study concludes that the effectiveness of the internal control mechanism and the disbursement of the DACF in the Karaga District can only be described as a utopian goal but not a reality in the face of countless obstacles. Consequently, the study recommends increased education and training for both staff of the Assembly and the Assembly members, provides the Assembly with qualified professional staff, and Periodic review of the DACF policy.