Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Influencing Income Inequality in Namibia

M. Y. Teweldemedhin

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/19249

This paper examines factors influencing income per person and inequality, applying hybrid Cobb-Douglas and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The explanatory variables were found to be positively and significant, at one per cent. PCA found that three components “economic opportunity” with loading factor of 41.7%; followed by “educational and migration characterisation” percentage variation accounted for 17% and “household characterisation” accounted for a 14% variation explanation. The result shows that Namibia fail break the cyclical problem of poverty, unemployment and filling the required skills required for better economic growth.

Open Access Original Research Article

Twenty Years of Implementation of District Assemblies’ Common Fund in Ghana - (1994-2013) An Assessment of Disbursement

Isaac Owusu-Mensah

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/19793

Decentralized democracies have been referred to as most efficient in delivery of social services in line with the aspirations of the citizens by exercising   transparency and ensuring accountability from political actors. Ghana’s 1992 Constitution promulgated in 1993 outlined in a new framework the District Assembly Common Fund (DACF) to empower the local government system to accelerate decentralization. The objective of the Fund is to support the implementation of District Development Programmes as well as leading the development priorities of the district to be accomplished on the principles of subsidiarity. Adopting a mixed method methodology, analysed within the framework of empowerment, this paper seeks to assess the contributions of DACF, the challenges embedded in the operation of the DACF as well as the opportunities to ensure optimal utilization of the limited resources to alleviate the rural population from the quagmire of underdevelopment. Although, the paper concludes that DACF is fraught with challenges, the Fund has contributed to the infrastructural development of district assemblies across the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Patient Satisfaction and Perception of Quality of Care in Outpatient Clinic in an Eye Specialist Hospital in Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Alahmari, Ibrahim Abdullah Aljasser, Bokkasam Sasidhar

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/21600

Aims: This study tries to evaluate patients’ satisfaction with a particular view of the specific perceptions of the quality of care in an outpatients department of tertiary care hospital provided by the doctors, nurses and receptionists, considering the waiting time as a separate factor of influence.

Study Design: This study was based on a questionnaire survey.

Methodology: This is a cross sectional study, whereby responses were collected from 300 patients who received treatment in the Eye Specialist Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Systematic sampling of patients was employed for selecting the samples. The data was collected by meeting the customers face to face. Every question was explained to respondents so that patient can understand the requirement of each factor considered. The data collected was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21.


Results: The overall satisfaction level and the perception levels based on services provided by doctors, nurses and receptionists were observed to be significantly higher than the neutral perception level, at 1% level of significance. However, the perceptions of the patients regarding the waiting time for service was significantly lower than the neutral perception level, at 1% level of significance. The waiting time for consulting with the doctor was more than 30 minutes in about 70% of the cases. The study also reveals that the male patients and those having long standing health conditions perceive better satisfaction levels than others. However, other demographic factors such as age, education level, income and ethnic group are not significantly related to the overall satisfaction levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

How Mom-and-Pop Stores Compete with Grocery Chains? A Perspective of Service Outputs on Self-Employed Retailers in Taiwan

Wen-Shinn Low

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/22005

Along with social changes and technological progress, the number of convenience stores and hypermarkets has risen sharply over recent years in Taiwan, and the traditional small ‘mom-and-pop’ stores thus face severe competition. Surprisingly, these stores have not declined in Taiwan; instead, they show a slight growth in sales. What kinds of service value do they provide under circumstances of insufficient resources and plenty of competitors? This study integrates service outputs theories elicited from marketing channel literature to explore the sources of value-added service of the self-employed retailers in Taiwan. Through in-depth interviews with ten shop proprietors, five service outputs are identified: bulk-breaking, spatial convenience, waiting and delivery time, product variety, and after-sales service. In addition, social functions were found to play an important role that enables the shops to engage in relationship exchanges with their end-users. The intermediary role of the single unit store has irreplaceable and unique advantages, and the findings have many implications for the industry’s associates.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of Personal Income Tax Evasion on Socio-economic Development in Ghana: A Case Study of the Informal Sector

Bismark Ameyaw, Bismark Addai, Eric Ashalley, Isaac Quaye

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/19267

Revenues generated from taxes constitute a major source of income for governments. However, the epic display of tax evasion by individuals and firms in most countries has induced researches on the factors accounting for tax evasion in developing countries. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of personal income tax evasion on economic growth in Ghana. Questionnaires were submitted to 153 respondents to investigate personal income tax evasion and socio-economic development with 109 respondents and 44 tax authority respondents from the informal sector in the Tema Metropolitan Assembly of Ghana. Regression analysis employed in our study depicted the results of the impact of personal income tax evasion on socio-economic development. The results of the study revealed that tax evasion in Ghana has an adverse influence on Socio-Economic Development. Furthermore, a liaison between tax rate and tax evasion was established. In other words, high tax rates amounts to high tax evasion tendency. The study further revealed that tax payers’ relationship with tax authorities has no linkage to the evasion of taxes. Moreover, the existence of weak penalties towards tax evasion also do not contribute to the evasion of taxes. The study conclude with recommendations to policy makers to aide in curbing the high incidence of tax evasion in Ghana.

Open Access Original Research Article

Franchise Relationship in Nigeria: Implicit Challenges to Role Performance as Franchisor

A. E. Ndu Oko, R. V. Okonkwo

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/19170

Franchise relationships between firms and nations (as either franchisors or franchisees) contribute to macro economic development based on the creation of employment; infrastructural development and generation of income to nations among others. These relationships have shown in-balance against Nigeria. While Nigeria enjoys relatively, the benefits associated with creation of employment and development of infrastructure, it has recorded deficit in income generation as a result of capital flights and profit remittances to franchisor firms and nations. This situation creates trade in-balance against Nigeria. This work established reasons for the high number of franchisor firms and nations in Nigeria as well as reasons for little or no presence of Nigeria firms as franchisors in other nations. The study involved the use of copies of questionnaire (close and open ended structured) that were scaled based on Likert modified ranking principle and the data were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), pearson correlation co-efficient ‘R’, ‘t’ statistics for difference of means, spearman’s rank correlation co-efficiency among others. Identified as problems of poor Nigeria firms’ presence beyond national shores are product oriented, poor disposition of Nigeria firms to direct losses in investment and their management as well as high level of cost evasiveness among Nigeria entrepreneurs. This situation of franchise relationship in-balance could be managed based, on the adoption of pro-active rather re-active management principles, given good choice of franchisees as well as good understanding of the legal environment of franchisees’ nations.

Open Access Commentaries / Opinion Articles

Investment and Commercial Banking: To Merge or Separate? An Empirical Analysis

Karikari Amoa-Gyarteng

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/21510

A major concern of regulators in the banking industry is how to decrease the risk exposure of banks and prevent a possible collapse. It is a widely held view that bank collapse is contagious hence if a few banks cave in it will inevitably lead to the destruction of the financial system as a whole. In the United States, commercial banks are allowed to establish section 20 subsidiaries to provide investment banking services. This, in the opinion of many industry analysts poses a heightened risk. Many analysts have therefore suggested that risky investment activities should not be merged with traditional depository activities of commercial banks. This paper assessed the merits and demerits of such a proposition by empirically analyzing the four largest banks in the US by market capitalization as of 2014. Tests of possible bankruptcy with the use of the modified Altman and Ohlson metrics were employed. Capital Adequacy and Size were also analyzed between the years of 2011 and 2014. As is consistent with the findings of some prior studies, this paper came to the conclusion that by allowing the two banking activities to be merged under one holding company, it was not only risk that increased but the banks’ ability to withstand shocks.