Open Access Original Research Article

Fiscal Policy, does it Really Matter? The (non) Impact of Fiscal Consolidation Policies on Growth

Julián Pérez García, Julián Moral Carcedo, Diego Cano Soler

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 172-185
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/15177

Following the outbreak of the sovereign debt crisis in the euro zone, austerity policies have emerged as the solution to the ills devastating the economies on the periphery. The impact of fiscal consolidation policies on growth remains an open question. There is widespread acceptance of a short-term negative impact alongside a broad range of opinions regarding the results in the medium and long term. This difference of opinion is primarily the result of the various theoretical approaches applied to this analysis. Because of its importance, in this article we take a predominantly applied approach to characterizing the effects of the processes involved in public deficit reduction at the macro level. Our result mainly rely in a statistical description of the results reported by the different European economies in periods of fiscal consolidation.


Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Effectiveness of use of ICT Components for Services Delivery in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria

E. Ainabor Augustine, N. Edeh Joseph, O. Onwe Sunday

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 197-207
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/13595

One of the challenges facing public services in Nigeria is lack of effective and efficient service delivery. In Nigerian local governments, service delivery affects all citizens who demand quality services. Thus, the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) creates opportunities for its use to promote effective service delivery in the Nigerian local government system. This study assessed ICT as a tool for effective service delivery in the Nigerian local government with a particular focus on Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State. To achieve the purpose of the study, a total of 450 questionnaires were randomly administered to the staff of Etsako West Local Government whose population is 650. Only 420 questionnaires were returned. After data mining of the questionnaires for inconsistency, omission and incomplete filling, a sample size of 228 was taken for the research study. The chi-square  was used to test the significant  association between ICT penetration in Etsako West Local Government in Edo State of Nigeria on the one hand, and the relationship between the use of ICT components by staff of the local government in the performance of their duties and service delivery on the other. The test of the hypotheses showed that there is no significant association  between ICT and service delivery in the administration of Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The study revealed low level of ICT usage in the studied local government and recommended among others, the need for government to create opportunity for staff of the local government to own computers and be ICT literate for efficient service delivery.





Open Access Original Research Article

Growth and Income Convergence: Do Worldwide Economic Groups Make Any Difference?

Mustapha Djennas

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 215-229
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/15584

The aim of this paper is to study the income convergence process according to economic growth in the world. In addition of the income countries analysis, the paper introduce a deeper analytical framework involving groups of countries in the word.

The study concerns 135 countries using data covering the period from 1980 to 2013. The methodological framework develop a cross-country analysis in the world, which integrate a decomposition approach for unconditional β-convergence, σ-convergence and conditional β-convergence of economic growth and income dynamics. Furthermore, based on the generalized Gini coefficient, the decomposition framework split the change in income inequality into progressivity/pro-poor growth and re-ranking components.

The results are consistent with earlier studies that have examined inequality across countries. The main findings underline - even if cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the income distribution provide different complementary pictures over time - that except for few countries, all the results show a very weak evidence of β-convergence, σ-convergence and conditional β-convergence in the world, and that there is still a lot of work to do in order to reach some accepted levels of convergence as far as the income disparities and economic growth are concerned. Furthermore, even in the case of groups of countries with common economic interests, the convergence process is even more complicated and very hard to achieve in the majority of cases if a relative homogeneity could not be ensured about the growth’s key indicators.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Productivity Analysis of Cassava Enterprises by Project and Non-project Women Farmers in Benue State, Nigeria

Monica Mwuese Atagher, E. C. Okorji, C. C. Eze

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 230-240
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/14499

This study has considered whether the differences in output and productivity among cassava women farmers in Benue state, Nigeria occur because of involvement in agricultural development project (ADP), or simply due to differences in observed characteristics. Data from 87 project (ADP) and 87 non-project (non-ADP) women farmers in Benue State, were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis and the ordinary least square regression techniques, during which respondents’ productivities were estimated, compared and determinants of productivity identified. Chi-square results showed that except for age and membership of farmers’ associations (which were significant), there was no significant difference between the socio-economic characteristics of ADP and non-ADP respondents. Regression results showed that there was a significant difference between the productivity of ADP and non-ADP respondents since computed F (27.56) was greater than tabulated F (1.93) at 5% level of significance. The coefficient of determination (R2) for ADP regression was 0.402 while F-ratio was 7.619 (P =.001). Significant variables were use of improved cassava stem cuttings (P =.074), amount of agrochemical used (P =.018), farm size (P =.064) and access to credit (P =.044). The R2 for non-ADP regression was 0.930 while F-ratio was 5.352 (P=.065). Significant variables were farming experience (P=.065), years of education (P =.019), family size (P =.013), and access to credit size (P =.031).  Policies for greater project participation, access to education, family planning services, production inputs such as improved cassava varieties, land, agrochemicals and other identified needs by women farmers would improve their productivity and reduce poverty in Nigeria.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Exploratory Analysis of Demographic, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors as Determinants of Job Satisfaction Level of a Conservation Agency’s Employees in Nigeria

Adekunle Anthony Ogunjinmi, Olugbenga Jelili Ladebo, Samuel Akinyele Onadeko

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 241-255
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/9272

Aims: This study determined the current aggregate levels of job satisfaction, the intrinsic, extrinsic and demographic factors that are related to the job satisfaction of Nigeria National Park Service employees.

Study Design:  This study was a questionnaire survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the seven National Parks being administered by Nigeria National Park Service. The parks are Chad Basin, Cross River, Gashska Gumti, Kainji Lake, Kamuku, Okomu and Old Oyo National Parks. It was conducted from 2008 to 2010.

Methodology: The study population was the employees of Nigeria National Parks. List of employees was obtained from each of the parks; the total number of employees was estimated to be 2000 individuals from which 231 (representing 11.6% of the population) were randomly selected for the study. About 300 questionnaires were distributed from where 231 were returned, amounting to 77% response rate. Data collection was through self-administered questionnaires. Job satisfaction was assessed using the modified form of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire and the modified form of 2002 Virginia Soil and Water Conservation District (VSWCD) Employee Evaluation.

Results: The study showed that the overall job satisfaction of the employees was low. All the employees were not satisfied with any item of intrinsic job satisfaction factors while they were only satisfied with one item of extrinsic job satisfaction factors. They were also satisfied with five items of VSWCD employee evaluation issues. Education and monthly pay were the predictors of their overall job satisfaction while there were correlations between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction factors and overall job satisfaction.

Conclusion: The study has contributed to the existing knowledge of job satisfaction, particularly as related to conservation organisations’ employees.  The study showed that job satisfaction level of Nigeria National Parks employees was low. They were not satisfied with any items on intrinsic job satisfaction factors while they were only satisfied with one item on extrinsic satisfaction. It is highly imperative for Nigeria National Parks Service to improve the working conditions, including pay and all other job satisfaction factors of employees in order to enhance their job satisfaction level.


Open Access Short Research Articles

The Application and Improvement of XBRL in China’s Retail Industry in the Era of Big Data

Hu Renyu, Ni Kaishi

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 208-214
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/14712

With the continuous development of the Internet, the business mode of China’s retail industry is transformed the traditional entity store into online store. As a result, more comprehensive data will be produced and saved, which makes retailers get them more easily. China’s retail industry ushers the advent of the era of big data. How to excavate and make use of these data to become useful information is the key to the development of this industry. As a new financial reporting language, XBRL can process multidimensional data in complicated structure, tag metadata, retrieve data rapidly and precisely and extend tags. So, it has the ability to process big data. This article discusses how to use the characteristics of XBRL and the attribute of data to make connections among retailers’ financial information, its customer management, supplier management and order management, then help companies make business decisions and obtain greater value appreciation. On the basis of it, this article also suggests revising the XBRL taxonomy standard elements.


Open Access Commentaries / Opinion Articles

Improving the Competitiveness of the SME's using Trade Knowledge and Simulation Based Design

Nicolas Gardan, Yvon Gardan

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 186-196
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2015/14510

Many SMEs are manufacturing sub-contractors, leaving their purchaser manage the design phase. Even those using CAD systems do it in a very basic way. They face technical and methodological problems when they try to evolve to functional design which is mandatory in the globalized world, for instance to use numerical simulation before manufacturing. Simulation is mainly used to verify the specification, all along the design process. Many SMEs follow well known stages: Modelling the object using CAD system, simulation under given condition of the behaviour of the model, modification of the CAD model. Some limitations or drawbacks of this kind of process are obvious: the designer does not manage the multi-criteria aspects of the problem and by using the constructive approach of CAD systems, he cannot express the overall objectives.

In order to be more efficient, intensive simulations, based on trade knowledge, should be done before the design itself.

After an introduction presenting the context of the research, we detail in chapter 2 the evolution of the process from the traditional process to the XFD (X For Design) one.

In order to verify the interest of XFD, we have chosen to process industrial, mainly on industrial (SMEs) cases. This work has been then a central work of the research centre DINCCS theme for last five years as an inductive research. About fifty industrial cases have been studied. About twenty of them are significant for the object of this paper.

In order to illustrate the diversity of the industrial cases we detail (not technically) some examples. We present some important results, considering three cases, based on the technology point of view:

- The integration in a specific tool of the numerical simulation and CAD system.

- The use of numerical optimization before design

- The specific use of trade knowledge in a dedicated system

Then, we discuss the strategy point of view, illustrated by six main cases.

The industrial examples confirm that this new approach can provide a quantifiable competitive advantage for most manufacturing SMEs. This is very important for SMEs, particularly manufacturing ones. Using numerical simulation (optimization) intensively, before defining the CAD model, they can get unexpected gains (mass, quality, better use of the means of manufacture).