Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Money Laundering in Italian Banks

Giuliana Birindelli, Paola Ferretti, Maura La Torre

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 841-861
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/7266

Aims: This paper focuses on some relevant aspects of a banking anti-money laundering (AML) system (training, information and regulatory development) in order to understand their impact on the enhancement of the customer risk assessment process.

Study Design: Research based on questionnaire.

Place and Duration of Study: Italy, between September 2012 and September 2013.

Methodology: We sent questionnaires to the 75 Italian banking groups listed in the Bank of Italy Register at March 2012. Over 60 per cent of the total participated to the survey.

Results: Training, information and regulatory development represent important points in the AML systems of the banks of the sample. They show a strong commitment in the development of the (Know Your Customer process), in order to fight against money laundering; however weaknesses are still present and improvements are needed.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Education and Health in Poverty Alleviation A Cross Country Analysis

Pervez Zamurrad Janjua, Usman Ahmed Kamal

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 896-924
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/6461

This research is an attempt to explore; does the overall education and health situation of a country have a considerable impact on poverty magnitude? It also tries to find out the level of efficiency of selected countries to utilise education and health expenditures. This study uses data of 40 developing countries for the period of 1999-2007 and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for empirical estimation. The study concludes three key findings. First, in contrast to trickle-down theory, achieving decent or high income growth rates do not ensure poverty reduction at similar pace. Second, improvements in educational and health outcomes are strongly and negatively associated with poverty incidence. However, educational improvements appear to be more strongly correlated with decline in poverty headcounts as compared to health improvements. Third, efficient use of public expenditures on education and health not only results in improved educational and health outcomes but it also permits a reduction in poverty. Thus, the study provides evidence in support of poverty reduction through improved education and health status.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Influence on the Performance of Supply Chain Management on Small and Medium Business Manufacturing Production Processes in Mexico

Luis Aguilera Enríquez, Octavio Hernández Castorena, Martha González Adame

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 925-940
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/7429

Aims: This study investigates the influence of Supply Chain Management on production processes in order to analyze the performance of manufacturing SMEs.

Study Design: This quantitative research with the support of EQS 6.1 software and structural equation-based statistical treatment,

Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed in manufacturing companies in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico, between March and April 2012.

Methodology: The sample was taken from 120 companies which employ between 10 and 250 employees, and for which we designed and applied a survey of company managers in this important sector. The simple random sample was based on the official records held by the Sistema de Información Empresarial Mexicano (SIEM or the Mexican Business Information System). The instrument consists of 3 blocks which measure the management of the supply chain, production processes and business performance within these companies.

Results: We performed exploratory and confirmatory analysisin order to analyze the factor loading of each variable, in order to confirm that there supply chain management has a positive influence on both the company’s production processes and yield. It also has a significant influence on the company’s ratio of production processes and performance.

Conclusion: The relationship between the main factors revealed from the Cronbach statistics shows that the load is positive and therefore that the theoretical model for the study is reliable.


Open Access Original Research Article

Study on the Problem of Illusory, Conditional and Current Indicators on an Example Managing the Economy of the Company

Sergey A. Surkov

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 941-946
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/7713

Three types of parameters in management of economy are considered in article. The greatest attention is paid to illusory parameters, as the most difficult for understanding. Researches cover the period in four years for the managers of the city Zhukovsky who are training on the MVA program. Some triads of the parameters connected with each other are revealed. These triads form response surfaces for the description of internal life in the organizations. Examples of such triads are the complexes connected with a conflictness and skill to communicate of staff of firms.


Open Access Original Research Article

Non-financial Performance Measures and Firm Value in Nigeria: What is the Link?

Daferighe Emmanuel Emeakponuzo

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 947-966
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/6303

Financial measures have been and continued to be used for measuring and understanding the health of business organizations. These measures have been criticized as backward looking and debates on the usefulness of non-financial measures (NFM) have been on. This paper examined the relationship between NFM and firm value of quoted companies in Nigeria from 2006-2010. The companies were classified into 32 industrial sectors made up of 199 listed companies. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 16 sectors comprising of 134 companies. At least 50% of the number of companies in each sector was selected using random sampling technique which gave rise to sample size of 66 companies. However, companies with incomplete data were eliminated resulting in a final sample size of 47companies. The NFM were categorized into eight classes. A regression analysis of the model revealed that NFM accounts for 15.6% influence on firm value in Nigeria. NFM such as new product development; strength of market position; and quality of investor communication adopted by companies in Nigeria positively impact on firm value. It was recommended that companies in Nigeria should choose appropriate mix of performance measures in designing financing mix policy and corporate financial policy. Companies in Nigeria should pay special attention to issues of brand image; strength of marketing/advertising; management credibility; and research leadership. They should also adopt adhocracy and market cultures to enhance the value of the firm.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Stakeholders' Pressures on Green Strategic Intent: An Empirical Study

Ines Karra, Habib Affes

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 967-977
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/9063

Aims: Climate change and environmental degradation have become a major concern in the world of business. Corporate awareness of the importance of preserving the environment contributes to the reduction of the impact of production cycles on the environment. Stakeholders exert some pressure so that firms undertake to respect the natural environment. It is then necessary to consider the impact of stakeholders' pressures on green strategic intent.

Place and Duration of Study: A study has been conducted with 62 polluting Tunisian companies. Information through questionnaires were collected during the period from March, 2013 to June, 2013.

Methodology: Methods of structural equations performed using SMART PLS 2.0 are used to test our research model.

Results: The results show the positive effect of pressure of regulators, organizational stakeholders and market on green strategic intent.

Conclusion: This research helps clarify the important role of socio-economic actors in corporate environmental responsibility and thus the development of the well-being of society in general.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Empirical Assessment of Jordanian Holding Companies in Attainment of International Accounting Standards (IAS)

Mohammad Ebrahim Nawaiseh, Jomana M. Badayneh, Abdullah S. Al Shetaiwi, Suhayb Yunis Sarareh

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 978-991
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/7916

Aims: This paper investigates the need for the assessment of Jordanian holding companies in attainment of International Accounting Standards (IAS): (27), (28) and (IFRS) no. (3).

Study Design: Research paper.

Place and Duration of Study: Jordan. Questionnaire in 2013.

Methodology: 40 questionnaires were circulated by hand to the financial departments in these companies.

Results: The study concluded a set of results: holding companies realize degree of compliance with the requirements of (IAS) for a business combination with a percentage of (76.46%), the percentage of the degree of compliance to the disclosure requirements is (72.13%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of Employees’ Stress Level in Pakistani Cell Phone Industry

Shaukat Ali Raza, Aliha Yousaf, Aamir Sajjad, Abir Hassan Naqvi

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 992-1004
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/5785

Aims: The current study investigated the stress level of employees of Pakistani cell phone industry in terms of work-related stress, role ambiguity, role conflict, work intensification, relationships with colleagues, working conditions, bullying and harassment and work performance as sub-scales.

Study Design: The study was descriptive in nature based upon the quantitative opinions of respondents collected through a survey scale.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Business Education, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan during March- September 2012.

Methodology: A stratified random sample of 315 employees of three out of five companies was taken. Correlations were calculated within sub-scales and between sub-scales and total scale. One sample t-test, independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were employed.

Results: Pakistani cell phone industry is a male dominant industry where a low-to-moderate level of stress prevails among the employees. Sub-scale analysis identified ‘role ambiguity’ with the highest and ‘relationships with colleagues’ with the lowest stress level of employees. Among the three companies, employees of Warid expressed the highest level of stress whereas those from Telenor showed the lowest stress level. Ufone employees showed the moderate level of stress.

Conclusion and Suggestions: The study concluded that Pakistani cell phone industry is characterized with a low-to-moderate level of stress. It suggested cell phone companies to address the ‘role ambiguity’ issue of their employees and Warid Telecom is specifically suggested to take measures to improve the satisfaction level of employees to reduce their stress.


Open Access Review Article

The Effect of Unemployment on Crime in Nigeria: A Panel Data Analysis

A. A. Kilishi, H. I. Mobolaji, A. Usman, A. T. Yakubu, M. A.Yaru

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 880-895
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/5991

The rising trend of crime in Nigeria is usually blamed on the high rate of unemployment. There is need therefore, to empirically investigate the relationship between unemployment and crime. Hence, this paper examined the impact of unemployment on different types of crime in Nigeria. The data that were used in this study consist of 36 states and Federal Capital Territory (FCT) spanning from 1996 to 2005 was used. Different estimation techniques ranging from OLS, WLS, Between estimator, Fixed effect and Random Effect were employed to estimate economics models of crime. The findings show that though employment was found to have significant impact on total crime and armed robbery, there no evidence that it causes kidnapping and vehicle theft. Prison, policing injuring or killing criminals was not found to be significant deterrent variables in the country but quick trial and prosecution of criminal’s particularly armed robbery would significantly reduce rate of crime. Thus, it is recommended that police should get criminals arrested instead of killing them so that they can be tried and prosecuted if find guilty. Prisons should be restructured to serve as rehabilitation centers.  


Open Access Method Articles

Research Methodological Techniques as a Model for Quantitative Studies in Social Sciences

Abdu Ja’afaru Bambale

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 862-879
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2014/7665

This paper attempts to present methodological techniques used in the study of the mediating role of psychological ownership on the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behaviors. Several relevant research methodology issues to help shed light on required research methods for major research such as Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) have been highlighted in this paper. Specifically, this paper discussed reasons behind adoption of certain methodological techniques including positivist philosophical orientation, descriptive and explanatory research designs that were employed in reviewed study. In addition, the paper quantitatively demonstrated how the sample for the affected study was derived using some important tools. The paper also discussed questionnaire design and distribution strategy, pilot study, measurement scales, and the use of Partial Least Squares method (PLS) in the analysis of data for the affected study. The paper highlighted the methodological implication of the use of Partial Least Squares Method (PLS) in the study of the relationships between servant leader behaviors, psychological ownership and organizational citizenship behaviors.