Aim: The study examines how the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria gave birth to the recent phenomena of multinationalisation/internationalisation of business and globalisation which brought together people from different socio-cultural backgrounds to work together in the various workplaces thereby making managing diversity problematic. With the resulting challenges, the paper presents the need for greater attention to be placed on examining the complexities of workplace diversity in the Nigerian workplace and the implication for the future of multinational businesses and their employees in this location.
Study Design: This paper relies on descriptive qualitative research methodology and will examine the impact of the influx of foreign workers on the already diverse workforce
Place and Duration of Study: Nigeria from 1950’s (before the discovery of crude oil) to 1956 (after the discovery of oil)
Methods and Methodology: The study relied on secondary sources of data on non-oil exports (cocoa beans, in the South-West, Groundnut in the North and Oil palm in the South East) in the 1950’s and the discovery of crude oil in 1956 at Oloibiri.
This paper employs a descriptive and historical research methodology through secondary data sources. Secondary data are information collected and recorded by someone else prior to and for purposes other than the current needs of the researcher . They are therefore usually historical and does not necessitate access to respondents or subjects . This source of data collection is becoming very popular in business researches, market survey, facts-findings, model building, and among social scientists generally . The major advantage of this form of data collection is in the fact that it is less expensive especially when compared with the primary source of data collection; as it has been previously collected . Secondary sources are good sources of proceeding with researches even if the researcher still has to go back to the primary source; there is at least something relevant to be used as a starting point . One can also build on the researches already conducted by other people using the secondary source as the basis of judgement. There are some instances where only the secondary sources can be used; and there was no way of considering primary source at all; for example a researcher conducting researches into events that happened a long time ago has no other choice than to depend on secondary source . For the purpose of this study, secondary data sources were adapted and at no point in this research was there the use of primary data especially as several historical facts were applied in developing the paper.
The major shortcoming in this form of data collection is in the fact that a lot of care must be taken in using secondary sources because the information was not collected with the present study in mind, so it might not specifically meet the researcher’s needs and there will be an issue of relevance; care must therefore be taken before making inferences and conclusions or else a lot of errors might be committed . In selecting secondary data, the present researcher relied on historical data from several sources including books, journals, archives of economic and public government databases and business news. In building a timeline of economic and business data this addressed the question of relevance in several aspects including; if the subject matter is consistent with the present research, if the time period what was really needed and if the information presented addresses the present research interest area(s).
Another major disadvantage of applying secondary sources is that researchers cannot confirm the accuracy of information and this affects its reliability; if there were errors in the secondary data, the researcher will automatically inherit the errors . Secondly, researches about the past are always problematic because the actors might have died or as people have short memories some important events might be forgotten. Moreover, it might be difficult if not impossible to address some issues because of the need to respect individual privacy as well as commercial implications . For example, in some cases the present management or administrators might not want to admit their roles in the past when things turned negative or provoked negative reactions and its only historical data that can effectively expose this [6,7].
This type of research methodology is regarded as one that does not fit into either quantitative or qualitative research method; this is because it utilises elements of both within the same study . This type of research methodology can also employ multiple variables for analysis; on the other hand it is unlike other methodology in that it requires only one variable . The four main purposes of secondary sources methodology are: to describe, to explain, to validate findings and to infer from all the findings having been validated to be true .
Description emerges following the creative exploration, and helps to arrange the findings in an order that will help to be fit for explanations and these explanations can then be tested to validate the variables being studied. With the aid of description, knowledge is illuminated and facts that were ignored can now be brought to light and be better understood . This method also helps in describing natural and man-made phenomena that will be very useful to other researchers and policymakers while prediction is also made easier at least to some extent . The study is primarily descriptive and weaves qualitative issues with quantitative facts to present its discussions.
Conclusion: The paper concludes that the favourable economic indexes and realities ushered in by the discovery of crude oil were fertile grounds for Multinationalisation, Globalisation and Internationalisation and increased the complexity of diversity management in a very diverse multi-cultural Nigeria. Furthermore, increased culture studies will aid in the understanding of diversity and how to manage it. This will be beneficial to the field of international management and the operations of multinationals in foreign locations in the long-run.