Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Impacts of Small-Scale Farm Households on Agricultural Commercialisation in Oyo State, Nigeria

K. O. Adenegan, O. Adams, L. O. E. Nwauwa

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2013/1910

Commercialization of subsistence agriculture in developing countries has led to different levels of production and consumption changes for men and women. This study therefore investigated the gender impacts of farm household resource allocation on agricultural commercialization in Nigeria. Results revealed that the majority of the household heads were male (65%) with an average age of 47years. 96% were married, 2% were single, 2% were divorced with an average household size of 6 members. The majority of the farmers operated on a small scale level. The linear regression result showed that farm size, income, land tenure, food security, level of education in relation to gender factor were variables that had impact on agricultural commercialization at 1%, 5%, and 10%  levels of significance respectively. Food security and labor cost had a negative relationship with agricultural commercialization. It was concluded that gender positively affects small-scale farm household agricultural commercialization of food crops in Oyo state, Nigeria. The study recommends improvement of price policy and farm income through provision of subsidies to farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nigeria Vision 20: 2020: A Reality or a Mirage

Onwuka Kevin Odulukwe

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 12-29
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2013/1868

Aims: The objective of this paper is to assess if Nigeria has achieved the path of economic development that will eventually lead to convergence and how long it will take her and at what rate she will be growing to reach her envisioned per capita income of $4,000 in the year 2020.

Research design: Nigeria aims to become one of the top twenty nations in the world in the year 2020. To know if Nigeria will achieve this we examine the per capita income and consumer price index difference between Nigeria and industrialized nations (UK, US, Germany, France and Japan) and newly emerging markets ( Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, Singapore)

Place and Duration of Study: This study is centred on Nigeria and covers the period between 1960 and 2008.

Methodology: We utilise the Augmented Dick-Fuller test and modified Barro-type time series of cross section.

Results: The results showed that among the developed nations Nigeria can converge with USA and UK. While among the newly industrializing nations convergence is possible only with South Africa, South Korea and Malaysia. Also the results showed that Nigeria can catch-up with Germany, Japan, South Africa and Singapore in the long run. The Barro-type time series model yields evidence of conditional convergence in per capita income. The findings show that for Nigeria to attain the per capita income of $4,000 in the year 2020, she needs to be growing at 19.1% annually. If she is growing at the 2010 growth rate of 8 %, it will take her about 27years to attain the dreamed per capita income.

Conclusion: Nigeria is growing but the rate of growth is lower than it is expected to attain a targeted per capita income in the year 2020. In this regard, more support ought to be given to the manufacturing sector where most growth is expected to come from.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Differences in Human Capital and Personality Traits as Drivers of Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria

Fapohunda Tinuke. M

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 30-47
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2013/2470

Female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress and have an important contribution to employment creation and GDP. They also have value through increasing entrepreneurial diversity. In addition to the growing number of female entrepreneurs across the globe in the last few decades there has been an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship.

Aims: This study (i) examines different human, financial and social capital related factors that may determine the success of women entrepreneurship (ii) find out if there are relationships between personality traits like locus of control, achievement motivation, creativity, risk propensity and entrepreneurial success.

Study design:  A survey design was adopted for study.

Place and duration of study: Department of industrial relations and public administration Lagos State University, Lagos Nigeria, between July and September 2012.

Methodology: A field survey of 200 entrepreneurs of the 1062 registered entrepreneurs randomly selected across six local government areas of Lagos.

Results: Response rate was 180 (90%) consisting of 102 (57%) men and 78 (43%) women. The rate of women's entrepreneurship is lower than that of men. Six hypotheses were tested using x2 at 0.05 level of significance and df 4. X2 (cal.) 33.94 indicates significant gender differences in control orientation. X2 of 56.37implies a significant difference in male and female level of competitiveness. X2 (cal.) 2.71, implies no significant difference in male and female in the level of achievement motivation. X2 (cal.) 61.16, implies a significant difference between male and female in risk propensity. X2 (cal.) 12.62, shows a significant difference in the level of human capital. X2 (cal.) 51.28 indicates gender differences in social capital.

Conclusion: The study posits that gender differences in competitiveness and some other personality traits is due to nature, nurture or a combination of both. The similarities between successful entrepreneurs of both genders imply that under the same conditions both can be successful entrepreneurs. Intervention efforts should focus on encouragement, technical, social and financial support, capacity building, experience, and well-developed professional networks for women entrepreneurs both to improve their numbers and to increase the success rates for existing ones.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception Survey of the Impact of Behaviour Based Safety on Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project, Nigeria

M. O. Agwu

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 48-59
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2013/2391

The paper is a perception survey of the impact of behaviour-based safety (BBS) on accident prevention in the Bonny NLNG construction project. It defines BBS as an accident preventive progamme designed to change employees behaviours from “at risk” to “safe” behaviours using both positive and negative reinforcements. The research question addressed the extent at which reduction of workers at-risk behaviours and accident rate is dependent on the implementation of behaviour-based safety programme in the Bonny NLNG construction project. It assumes that majority of work related accidents are caused by workers at-risk behaviours which can be reduced through behaviour modification. An exploratory cross-sectional employees’ perception survey was used in conducting the study, using questionnaire administered on 384 randomly selected employees of the ten construction companies involved in the Bonny NLNG construction project. The questionnaire responses were presented using tables, analyzed using simple percentages while formulated hypotheses were tested using chi-square (χ2).The results indicated that the implementation of behaviour-based safety programme in the Bonny NLNG construction project to a large extent reduced workers at-risk behaviours and accident rate. The research concludes that reduction in workers at-risk behaviours and accident rate is dependent on the implementation of behaviour-based safety programme in the Bonny NLNG construction project. It therefore recommends among others: a continuous review of employees behaviour reinforcement techniques, encouragement of workers to observe/correct each other’s at-risk behaviours, provision of extensive training for B-Safe observers and continuous commitment of management/workers to the elimination of at-risk behaviours in the workplace.

Open Access Original Research Article

Is Inflation in South Africa a Structural or Monetary Phenomenon?

Michael Adusei

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 60-72
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2013/2553

Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate whether or not inflation in South Africa is a structural or monetary phenomenon.

Study Design: Case Study.

Place and Duration of Study: South Africa. Time series data ranging from 1965 to 2006.

Methodology: The study employs unit root testing, co-integration analysis, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) regression, Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression, Error Correction Model and pair wise Granger Causality Test technique to analyze annual time series data from South Africa.

Results: The findings suggest that in the short run, openness of the South African economy, nominal interest rate, inflation in USA, broad money supply and government spending are not likely to influence prices in South Africa. Instead, the paper finds GDP as a significant determinant of prices in South Africa in the short run. In the long run without controlling for structural breaks, openness of the South African economy to the rest of the world, inflation in the USA, GDP, broad money supply and size of government are significant determinants of inflation in South Africa. However, when we control for the Asian stock market crash and the collapse of the apartheid system, only openness of the South African economy to the rest of the world and broad money supply are the significant determinants of inflation. Nominal interest rate is not a significant determinant of inflation in South Africa. Granger Causality Tests reveal that there is uni-directional causality from inflation in the USA and GDP to inflation in South Africa as well as from inflation to broad money supply in South Africa.

Conclusion: The study contends that inflation in South Africa is a structural as well as monetary phenomenon. To the extent that inflation in the USA as well as openness of the South African economy to the rest of the world demonstrates robust influence on inflation in South Africa, it is submitted that policy makers in South Africa could moderate inflation by strengthening international competitiveness of the South African economy.