Open Access Original Research Article

Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Turnover: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Ashique Ali Jhatial, Riaz Ahmed Mangi, Ikhtiar Ali Ghumro

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 279-295
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2012/1326

Aims: This study examines the interrelationship among major antecedents of employee turnover such as HRM practices, organisational culture, attitudes of boss on employees’ intention to quit in Pakistani banking and IT sectors.
Study Design: The study employs exploratory research design; in-depth interviews were applied for the data collection.
Place: The study is conducted in the national and multinational companies in Pakistan.
Methodology: Data collected through in-depth interviews from thirty top executives to junior managers from government, private and multinational organisations. The study employed ‘narrative analysis’ method to analyse the data. Narrative analysis looks at self-story and individual experiences of interviewee regarding social phenomenon. This analytical technique helped authors to compare and categorize emerging themes to give meaning to words, context-situation, story and basic actions.
Results: The results suggest that, overall picture of HRM and organisational culture in public sector organisation appears to be poor whereas private (local) organisations seem comparatively better improving. On the contrary, respondents in MNCs expressed high agreement on merit-based HRM, organisational culture and attitude of boss with higher self-esteem.
Conclusion: This study revealed that there exists interrelationship among the factors stated above and also study concludes that taking care of human factor with mutual respect, mentoring and employee empowerment could enhance employee morale, commitment and satisfaction which virtually link employees’ decision to stay in the organisation. Policy implications for organisations and managers are discussed in the last section.

Open Access Original Research Article

Corporate Social Responsibility: An Outlook of Indian Financial Institutions

Rajasekhara Mouly Potluri, Rizwana Ansari, Saqib Rasool Khan, Siva Kumar Challa

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 296-308
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2012/1977

Aims: The principal objective of this research is to discern the perceptions of Indian financial institutions towards corporate social responsibility and also attempts to be acquainted with the opinions of employees, customers and general public.
Methodology: This paper reviewed the relevant literature on CSR and Indian financial institutions. The researchers designed four types of questionnaires and conduct in-depth personal interviews to collect the opinions of financial institutions, employees, customers and general public. The survey confined only to fifty financial institutions related to banking, insurance, mutual funds, and share-broking companies. The researchers used simple random and convenience sampling methods to gather the data from 100 employees, 200 customers and 200 general public. The collected data was analyzed with Microsoft Excel software and frequency distribution. This research is limited to the financial institutions only from the sectors of banking, insurance, mutual funds, share-broking which are operating from the southern state of Andhra Pradesh in India.
Results: The Indian financial institutions expressed almost hundred percent positive attitudes in implementing CSR towards all the stakeholders. Regarding CSR towards employees, only 80 percent financial institutions reacted positively towards fair wages, job security, meaningful freedom, job satisfaction and humane treatment. Related to the cross validate section, 64.85 percent of employees, 45.64 percent of customers and 51.60 percent of general public only reacted positively towards the socially responsible actions of financial institutions in the country.
Conclusion: This research paper shed light on Indian financial institutions about the views of their employees, customers and general public on their socially responsible actions. The study is first of its kind which attempts to know the perceptions of Indian financial institutions on implementation of different socially responsible actions which is valuable to the corporate world and also provides insight to the world of academia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investment in Telecommunications Infrastructure and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Multivariate Approach

B. O. Adegbemi Onakoya, A. Sheriffdeen Tella, M. Adenike Osoba

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 309-326
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2012/1886

This paper attempts to investigate the impact of investment in telecommunications infrastructure on economic growth in Nigeria. A multivariate model of simultaneous equations was deployed. The paper also deploys three-stage least squares method to capture the transmission channels through which telecommunications infrastructure promotes growth. The finding shows that telecommunications infrastructural investment has a significant impact on output of the economy directly through its industrial output and indirectly through the output of other sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, oil and other services. The results also show a bi-directional causal relationship between telecommunications infrastructure and economic growth. The paper recommends for more effective telecommunications infrastructure that will further impact economic growth in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A Multivariate Cointegration Analysis

Khalid Alkhathlan, Muhammad Qaiser Alam, Muhammad Javid

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 327-339
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2012/1673

This paper applied the ARDL and VECM test techniques on economic growth, CO2 emissions, energy consumption and the employment ratio to establish the long run and short run relationships between these variables in Saudi Arabia. The results show that there are long run and short run relationships among the variables in the model. The estimated elasticity coefficients of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, and employment ratio have positive and significant impacts on GDP in the long run. The results for direction of causality indicate that neither carbon emissions per capita nor energy consumption per capita cause GDP per capita, but employment ratio causes GDP per capita in the short run. On the basis of our empirical findings, it can be concluded that energy conservation policies and controlling carbon dioxide emissions, are likely to have no adverse effect on economic growth in Saudi Arabia in the short run. However, the long run income elasticity of carbon emissions is greater than the short run income elasticity of carbon emissions, which implies that in the long run income leads to greater carbon dioxide emissions in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agricultural Credit Allocation and Constraint Analyses of Selected Maize Farmers in Ghana

John K. M. Kuwornu, Isaac D. Ohene-Ntow, Samuel Asuming-Brempong

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 353-374
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2012/2270

The study analyzes factors influencing agricultural credit allocation and constraint condition of maize farmers in the Upper-Manya Krobo District in the Eastern region of Ghana. The study uses primary data solicited from 130 maize farmers through the administration of a structured questionnaire. Using the paired sample t-test to test for significant differences between the amounts of credit demanded and the amount received by farmers, it is revealed that the amount of credit received was significantly lower than the amount of credit demanded by farmers. The Probit regression model was then used to estimate the parameters of the determinants of credit constraint condition of the farmers. The empirical results reveal that gender, household size of farmers, annual income of farmers and farm size have significant influence on credit constraint conditions of the farmers. The Tobit regression model was also used to estimate the parameters of the determinants of the rate of agricultural credit allocated to the farm sector. The empirical results of the Tobit regression model reveal that age, bank visits before credit acquisition and the amount (size) of credit received have significant influence on the rate of agricultural credit allocation to the farm sector. The study provides the following recommendations: it is imperative that bank officials visit farmers on their farms before granting them loans, and also farmers must be granted the required amounts of loan to enhance the rate of agricultural loan allocation to the farm sector to ensure increased productivity of crops grown for increased welfare and livelihood of these farmers and the citizens of the country as a whole. 

Open Access Case Reports / Case Studies

Determinants of Poverty among Crop Farmers: A Case of Ogo-Oluwa Local Government, Oyo State

S. O. Olawuyi, M. O. Raufu

Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, Page 340-352
DOI: 10.9734/BJEMT/2012/2121

This study analyzed the determinants of poverty among crop farmers in Ogo-Oluwa Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaires and a total of 80 respondents were chosen through a multistage random sampling technique. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistic, poverty indices, Logit regression analysis and Correlation matrix. The result revealed that, respondents have mean pooled income of N39, 521.00 while the estimated mean total expenditure was N 21,673.46; this is incomparable with that of the national average. Also, the head count ratio P0 was 7.2%, the poverty gap P1 was 4.6% while that of the severity indices P2 was 2.8%; total spending deficit was N12041.04 and the spending deficit ratio was 39.2%. It can be inferred from that poverty is a serious problem among crop farmers which has to be given utmost attention. The Logit regression analysis revealed that age, years spent in school, household size and farm size of the respondents have significant influence on the log likelihood of being poor; secondary occupation, years of experience in primary occupation and personal savings of the household heads have no influence on the log likelihood of being poor. Also, the correlation matrix revealed that years spent in school, farm size of the households’ head, household size and gender were positively related to per capita expenditure while marital status and age of household head were negatively related to per capita expenditure as expected. The study concluded that the years spent in school is a significant factor that can reduce the likelihood of being poor. Increase in household size is significant which also can raise per capita expenditure and increase the likelihood of being poor. Hence, there is need to have sound educational level and curb excessive household size through birth control; these can reduce the likelihood of being poor.