Journal of Economics, Management and Trade <p><strong>Journal of Economics, Management and Trade (ISSN:&nbsp;2456-9216)</strong> publishes manuscripts with valuable insight to research, ideas and strategies of economics, management and trade. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. This journal aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JEMT/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all below mentioned areas.</p> Journal of Economics, Management and Trade en-US Journal of Economics, Management and Trade 2456-9216 Saving Behavior and External Debt Service: The West African Perspective <p>The paper investigated the effect of saving behavior and debt-service on the debt burden and its effect on some economic indicators, debt service to export, export to GDP, debt service to GDP, savings rate and income per capita of 14 West African Countries. The data from the World Bank economic indicators for the period 1985-2015 were used as models. This was analyzed using fixed and random effect regressions and houseman tests to determine the most appropriate estimator. The results revealed that the national savings of these countries should play a significant role in terms of payment of debt services and the countries' ability to reducing their total debt burden. It is also revealed that an increase in the export/GDP growth will lead to growth in the country’s economy by providing more resources to pay the national debt, both external and domestic debt. The national saving rate should aim at improving the economic growth rate through a higher saving ]rate. The paper recommends that these countries should pursue a balanced saving policy, increase the export/GDP ratio and total revenue generated for a fully sustainable reduction of total debt burden so that future generations would not inherit a huge debt burden.</p> Obi Chineze Eunice Imo G. Ibe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 1 20 10.9734/jemt/2020/v26i830277 Social Responsibility and Marketing Impact on Hospital Business Sustainability: Lesson from Indonesia <p>This research empirically examines the influence of corporate and employee social responsibility, customer satisfaction, trust, and loyalty, and sustainable business variables. The methods of this study using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling with hypothesis testing. Hospitals listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange that carry out corporate social responsibility (CSR) were used as study objects. The number of samples collected was 96 respondents. The result showed although employee social responsibility (ESR) has a positive effect on customer satisfaction and trust, it has no significant impact on business sustainability. Likewise, patient satisfaction has a positive effect on loyalty, yet it has no significant impact on business sustainability. Trust has a positive effect on patient loyalty and business sustainability. The research novelty is corporate social responsibility as a determinant of business sustainability, as both an independent and mediating variable, including the employee social responsibility. Patient trust plays a vital role as a mediator between patient satisfaction and loyalty. Ethics has the highest contribution to CSR, furthermore, employee social responsibility and measurement are valid for marketing studies.</p> Frinda Susanto Farida Jasfar Hamdy Hady Robert Kristaung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-06 2020-10-06 21 35 10.9734/jemt/2020/v26i830278 Superior Role of Human Resource Development Climate and Its Impact on Job Attitudes <p>According to the extant literature in the context of human resource management (HRM), the preeminent role of human resource development (HRD) climate on employees’ job attitudes is irrefutable. This study aims to determine the effect of HRD climate on job attitudes, including positive and negative ones. The proposed model consists of five latent variables which are HRD climate as an exogenous variable and work engagement, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) as endogenous variables. The authors use a quantitative method involving questionnaire distribution among employees in different private banks located in Tehran (Capital city of Iran). Among distributed questionnaires, 384 were retrieved. To obtain the results, structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was applied. Findings supported the notion that HRD climate has a significant determination on job attitudes. Among them, determination of HRD climate on work engagement and organizational commitment is remarkable. Also, HRD climate had a positive role in increasing OCBs and reduction in negative job attitudes. The results will be practical for academics in the field of HRM. It is worthwhile mentioning that there will be managerial implications for the managers in the Iranian private banking industry and results provide initial insights for managers on how to increase the sense of organizational commitment and work engagement as defined task duties among employees within the Iranian private banking industry. Besides, the results will be pragmatic for managers for injecting and burgeoning the sense of citizenship behaviors and diminution of counterproductive work behaviors to increase profitability, revenue, return on investment (ROI), and productivity, also avoiding stagnation in the environmental workplace of the Iranian private banking industry.</p> Akbar Barmaky Huseyin Ekizler ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 36 60 10.9734/jemt/2020/v26i830279 Re-engineering Apprenticeship Scheme for Economic Sustainability in Industrial Cities of South East of Nigeria: Post Civil War Experience <p>The study examined apprenticeship scheme and economic sustainability in industrial areas of South East of Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to evaluate how apprenticeship scheme influenced employment generation after civil war in South East of Nigeria, identify problems affecting apprenticeship scheme and ascertain ways apprenticeship scheme could be re-engineered in the South-East of Nigeria. As a survey research design, questionnaire was used to elicit information from one hundred and forty business operators in Aba, Nnewi and Onitsha, as the industrial cities in South East before and after the civil war, who undergone apprenticeship scheme before establishing their own business. The data were analysed using mean, percentage and simple regression at 5% level of significance. The result revealed that Successful business start-up by apprentice generated employment for people over a long period of time in the South East after civil war. Apprenticeship scheme in the recent times lacked; involvement of labour representative in the apprenticeship agreement, written agreement under the watch of a labour officer; and opportunity to further education as well as apprentice physiological and social well being. The study concluded that apprenticeship scheme provided employment after civil war in South East of Nigeria over a long period of time; notwithstanding, apprenticeship scheme faces a lot of problems in the recent times. Thus, to re-engineer apprenticeship scheme in South East, the study recommended that labour laws that would persecute the defaulting master(s) or servant(s) in the contract of apprenticeship scheme have to be established, apprentices have to be given educational opportunity while in apprenticeship scheme; and apprenticeship scheme has to be covered with an effective contract agreement under the supervision of a labour officer.</p> Ifeanyi, Titus Tochukwu Onwuchekwa, Faith Chidi Dimgba, Chidinma Martha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-16 2020-10-16 61 71 10.9734/jemt/2020/v26i830280 Transiting to International Financial Reporting Standards for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in Ethiopia: Benefits and Costs <p>In every nation in the world small and medium enterprises (SME) have a crucial role in the Socio-economic development. Thus Over a decade’s they are increasingly attracting different stakeholder’s attention. It is in this regard the International Accounting standard Board (IASB) issued IFRS for SMEs in July 09, 2009. This study examined the Benefits and Costs of transiting to International financial reporting standard for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (IFRS for SMEs) in Ethiopia. So as to achieve this objective the researcher used mixed research approach. Semi-structured interview and questionnaires were used as an important tool for gathering the necessary data from tour operators as target group. From 320 SMEs given population size, 32 SMEs firms selected using systematic sampling technique and 93 is the sample size of respondents chosen from 32 SME firms based on Judgmental sampling technique.</p> <p>It was found in this study the benefit of transition towards IFRS for SME is expected to decreases the information asymmetry between insiders and outsiders users of accounting information. Moreover its long run effect helps to achieve of the theoretical concept of the primary &amp; secondary qualitative characteristics of accounting information (Relevance &amp; Reliability Vs Comparability &amp; understandability). Above all, the aggregate effects may increase the number of cross boarder investments, increasing the alternative of sources of financing and reducing cost of debt.</p> <p>Furthermore, the finding shows transition towards IFRS for SME is costly to firms primarily because of the superior exertion of efforts, understanding and information systems needed and during post transition period additional effort needed to manage the risk of potential material misstatements appearing in the IFRS for SMEs-generated financial statements. Lack of knowledge (understanding) requires them to be engaged in a capacity building program with the coordination of Auditing and Accounting Board of Ethiopian &amp; academicians.</p> Dagnachew Abera Hunde Kefiyalew Belachew Bayu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-10-17 2020-10-17 72 87 10.9734/jemt/2020/v26i830281