Estimating the Fiscal Reaction Function for Namibia

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Evelina Julius
Jacob M. Nyambe
Omu Kakujaha Matundu


This paper estimates the fiscal reaction function for Namibia with the aim of establishing how the Government of Namibia responds to changes in debt levels. The VECM and the ARDL models were adopted to explore the reactions between the two variables. Both the VECM and ARDL confirmed the long-run relationship between the variables and showed that government increases its primary balance (i.e. reduce its primary deficit) by 0.07 percent and 0.31 percent, respectively, for every 1 percentage increase in debt levels. On one end, the results from VECM indicated that fiscal policy in Namibia is pro-cyclical, reflected in a positive estimated effect of the output gap on the primary balance. On the other end, the ARDL model indicated an insignificant relationship between the output gap and the primary balance. The debt targeting analysis performed provides evidence that it is not enough to only reduce the primary deficit for fiscal sustainability. Instead, it is important to grow the economy and improve the ability of debt repayment so that debt accumulation declines. Thus, the paper recommends that Namibia needs not only a positive, but also a strong economic growth if it is to make significant impacts on the debt level and guarantee both debt and fiscal sustainability.

Fiscal reaction, primary balance, debt, sustainability, Namibia.

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How to Cite
Julius, E., Nyambe, J. M., & Matundu, O. K. (2020). Estimating the Fiscal Reaction Function for Namibia. Journal of Economics, Management and Trade, 26(8), 94-108.
Original Research Article


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